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re:plesiosaur/pliosaur propulsion

I just tuned in to the discussion on this subject: my email address got (more th
screwed up.>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D

Unless this has been discussed already, let me add to the comments by Stan and S
s realized several years ago (I forget by who) that the elasmo-
saur plesiosua>[D>[D>[D>[D>[Diosaurs could not flex their necks in the manner pi
Charles Knight paintings, and thus they could not dart around and snag fish
or fight off mosasaurs by snakelike motions p>[Dof the head.

 Further, we also know that pliosaurs with modest sized necks (e.g. Cimoliosau>[
Aurus) were much more common than the exotic long-neckse>[D>[Ded plesiosaurs, at
In the Late Cretaceous.

 Therefore, the whole behavior of the Sauropterygians was reexamined and they ar
ly perceived to be penguin-type submarine flyers; both long- and
short-necked forms.  The body p>[Dplan of the entire group is fairly conservativ
except for the necks and heades>[D>[D>[Dds.  Betsy Nicholls at Tyrrell has a rec
He shoulder>[D>[Ders of plesiosaurs which points up the adapations for subaqueou
D>[D>[D flight, and she used the model of cheloniids (marine turtles) for analog
(ciart>[D>[D>[Dtation: Nicholls. E.L. and Russell, A. P. 1991, The Plesiosaur pe
girdle:the case for a sternum.  --o>[D>[Doscure journal: Nues Jb. Geol. Palaeont
Stuttgart, Germany p. 161-185--I'd just write to Betsy for a ciop>[D>[D>[D>[Dcop
B>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[C>[Cv. >[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>[D>

  Bottom line, as far as I know, plesiosaurs/pliosaurs were rapid swimmers
using turtle/penguiio>[D>[Dn type propulsion for pursuit predatioo>[Dn.
david schwimmer
schwimm@usd>[Dcn.cc.uga.edu (I think)