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Re: holotype, etc.
In a message dated 95-08-26 18:18:44 EDT, MFHanson@aol.com writes:
>What is the relationship between the following words: holotype, lectotype,
>paralectotype, syntype, plesiotype..any others? My dictionary does not have
>all of these in it..
In answer to your question, here are relevant portions, slightly abridged and
unindented, of the glossary from the 1985 edition of the International Code
of Zoological Nomenclature:
type: A term used alone, or forming part of a compound term, to denote a
particular kind of specimen or taxon.
allotype: A term, not regulated by the Code, for a designated specimen of
opposite sex to the holotype.
cotype: A term not recognized by the Code, formerly used for either syntype
or paratype, but that should not now be used in zoological nomenclature.
genotype: A term not recognized by the Code, formerly used for type species,
but that should not now be used in zoological nomenclature.
hapantotype: One or more preparations of directly related individuals
representing differing stages in the life cycle together forming a
name-bearing type in an extant species of protozoa. A hapantotype is a series
that must not be restricted by lectotype selection; however, if a hapantotype
is found to contain individuals of more than one species, components may be
eliminated until it contains individuals of only one species.
holotype: A single specimen designated as the name-bearing type of a species
or subspecies when it was established, or the single specimen on which such a
taxon was based when no type was specified.
lectotype: A syntype designated as the single name-bearing type specimen
subsequent to the establishment of a nominal species or subspecies.
name-bearing type: The type genus, type species, holotype, lectotype, series
of syntypes (which, together, form the name-bearing type), neotype, type
slide, or hapantotype, that provides the objective standard of reference
whereby the application of the name of a taxon can be determined.
neotype: The single specimen designated as the name-bearing type of a nominal
species or subspecies for which no holotype, or lectotype, or syntype(s), or
prior neotype, is believed to exist.
paralectotype: Each specimen of a former syntype series remaining after the
designation of a lectotype.
paratype: Each specimen of a type series other than the holotype.
syntype: Each specimen of a type series from which neither a holotype nor a
lectotype has been designated.
topotype: A term, not regulated by the Code, for a specimen originating from
the type locality of the species or subspecies to which it is thought to
belong, whether or not the specimen is part of the type series.
type horizon: The geological stratum from which the name-bearing type of a
nominal species or subspecies was collected.
type locality: The geographical place of capture or collection of the
name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies. If the name-bearing
type was captured or collected after being transported by boat, vehicle,
aircraft, or other human or mechanical means, the type locality is the place
from which it, or its wild progenitor, began its unnatural journey.
type series: The series of specimens that either constitutes the name-bearing
type (syntypes) of a nominal species or subspecies or from which the
name-bearing type has been or may be designated.
type specimen: A term used in previous editions of the Code for holotype,
lectotype, or neotype; also used generally for any specimen of the type
The term "plesiotype" is not even in the Code glossary, but it is essentially
a synonym of paratype. Some have used it to denote a specimen "farther
removed" from the type specimen than a paratype.
Hope this helps somewhat. It's "right from the horse's mouth."