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RE:Ceratopian jaws

Nick Longrich writes;

>  Longer muscles can contract over greater distances, but 
>the strength of a muscle is directly related to it's cross sectional 
>area. This is why modern herbivores tend o have short, broad sheets of 
>muscle to pull on the jaw; because it develops much more force. 

This is a good point.  I'll have to think things over during Christmas

>        The earliest mammals, it was my impression, were really tiny 
>and probably ate bugs, small animals, or seeds. Making arguments about 
>the functional anatomy  of a 5 tonne grazer from the anatomy of a tiny 
>insectivore not even related to  doesn't make a lot of sense. 

Whoops!  Sorry, but I meant to say "therapsids" when I said "earliest
mammals."  Dear God, I'm turning into a cladist!

Rob Meyerson
Orphan Vertebrate Paleontologist

"Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night!"