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Re: The death throes of drowning, version 2

In a message dated 96-02-03 04:08:49 EST, martz@holly.ColoState.EDU (Jeffrey
Martz) writes:

>    Also, in regard to ceratopsian forelimbs, the 
>elbows were naturally bent, even if they were pulled in.  Although the 
>evidence definitely supports a non-sprawl, its still not what I'd 
>call an "upright" posture.  Whats the point to cocking the elbows like 
>that?  Could these things really gallop after all?

Ceratopian forelimbs were, overall, quite similar to ankylosaur and stegosaur
forelimbs: strongly crested humeri, well-developed olecranons on the ulnae.
The forelimb posture in all three groups was quite similar, although the
"elbows" may have been directed differently, depending on the orientation of
the scapulae and glenoids. The similarities are undoubtedly the result of
convergent evolution--similar solutions to the problem of deriving
graviportal quadrupedality from bipedal/scansorial ancestors.