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Re: new boook on functional morphology
> That aside, it is still true the main use of the horns was probably
> contests *within* the species. Even well-armed herbivores prefer
> to run away from predators rather than fight.
> email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Wild bovids (muskoxen, Cape buffalo, bison, etc.), which in many ways
appear to be the ecologic corollaries to ceratopsians, use their horns in
ring-defense of young, adults facing outward toward predators.
Just a thought. I have less confidence than Stan in my understanding of
the ceratopsian behavior patterns, but know that they shared their world
with many predators that could easily outrun them.
A formidable and aggressive familial defense, a prickly ring of adults,
seems fairly likely to me.
Again, I speak with less firmness, and no doubt less precise knowledge,
than Stan, there.