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theropod hollow bones
Thanks to those who responded to my request for an address.
About "theropod hollow bones," I actually have four questions:
1. When theropods are referred to as (some) being hollow-boned, what
bones are in this category? I have the impression that it is "long
bones"--specifically those of the limbs and ribs. Is that correct? Are
carpals/metacarpals and tarsals/metatarsals or phalanges also involved?
Are any other bones involved (ignoring pleurocoels and pneumatic skulls)?
2. Solid vs. hollow must take into account marrow cavities, and we're
talking about more open space than is expected for marrow cavities,
right? And the "excess" open space was filled with "air" (some bodily
3. I know there is some disagreement about whether _Archeopteryx_ had
hollow bones. Be that as it may (I concluded from earlier discussions
here that it does), there must be some primitive theropods/coelurosaurs
that still had solid bones. How would we distinguish animals "on the
edge"? In other words, how do we recognize a theropod/coelurosaur that
is just starting to develop the hollow-boned trait? Or, to paraphrase
some of my earlier questions, how hollow is "hollow"?
4. Which theropods (or theropod groups) had genuinely hollow bones?
Thanks in advance for any responses.
Norman R. King tel: (812) 464-1794
Department of Geosciences fax: (812) 464-1960
University of Southern Indiana
8600 University Blvd.
Evansville, IN 47712 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org