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theropod hollow bones



Thanks to those who responded to my request for an address.

About "theropod hollow bones," I actually have four questions:

1.  When theropods are referred to as (some) being hollow-boned, what 
bones are in this category?  I have the impression that it is "long 
bones"--specifically those of the limbs and ribs.  Is that correct?  Are 
carpals/metacarpals and tarsals/metatarsals or phalanges also involved?  
Are any other bones involved (ignoring pleurocoels and pneumatic skulls)?

2.  Solid vs. hollow must take into account marrow cavities, and we're 
talking about more open space than is expected for marrow cavities, 
right?  And the "excess" open space was filled with "air" (some bodily 
gas)?

3.  I know there is some disagreement about whether _Archeopteryx_ had 
hollow bones.  Be that as it may (I concluded from earlier discussions 
here that it does), there must be some primitive theropods/coelurosaurs 
that still had solid bones.  How would we distinguish animals "on the 
edge"?  In other words, how do we recognize a theropod/coelurosaur that 
is just starting to develop the hollow-boned trait?  Or, to paraphrase 
some of my earlier questions, how hollow is "hollow"?

4.  Which theropods (or theropod groups) had genuinely hollow bones?


Thanks in advance for any responses.

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Norman R. King                                       tel:  (812) 464-1794
Department of Geosciences                            fax:  (812) 464-1960
University of Southern Indiana
8600 University Blvd.
Evansville, IN 47712                      e-mail:  nking.ucs@smtp.usi.edu