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Gr. 9 Sc. Fair Project

To All:

I have just finished reading in the following reference (p. 24 - 28) that
when humans form vowel sounds, we use our throats as closed air columns (a
pipe closed at one end and open at the other).

Kent and Read 1992. _The Acoustic Analysis of Speech_.San Diego, California;
Singular Publishing Group

My problem here is that Weishampel's work with hadrosaurs assumes that their
vocalizations were produced by open air columns (a pipe open at both ends).
My reference follows.  If I can assume that hadrosaurs produced their
vocalizations by using closed air columns, then the resonant frequencies are
cut in half.  However, I suspect that Weishampel knows what he is doing and
that I have missed something.  Can anyone help?

Weishampel 1981. "Acoustic Analysis of Potential Vocalization in
Lambeosaurine Dinosaurs (Reptilia: Ornithschia)" p. 252-261 Paleobiology 7(2)

Della Drury