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Nuchal ligaments

                      Subject:                              Time:  2:25 PM
  OFFICE MEMO         Nuchal ligaments                      Date:  12/4/97

  I know this has been somewhat discussed in this forum recently, but I still
have some questions that I need answered.  Nuchal ligaments could make sense
in the necks of hadrosaurs, for the neck superficially resembles that of a
cow, but is that assumpsion based on skin samples from the "mummy" or is it
based on the presence of ossified ligaments.
  In Czerkas' article on skin in the Currie/Padian encyclopedia, he states
that  " the segmented folds over the neck are apparently caused by the dried
nuchal ligaments."  Are there actual ligaments ?  What are nuchal ligaments ?
 Do camels have them, deers, or other slender necks herbivores have them?
What is the benefit of having a deeper neck?  What  hadrosaur is he basing
this on?  Is the reasoning based on some loose wrinked up skin alone?
  If I were to look at the mummy,does the skin cover the neck and beyond or
does it just lie above the cervical vertebrae?
  If I were to bite into some fried chicken, the first thing to slide off is
the skin, perhaps that is all that happened after this animal died.  The skin
came off and dried all crinkled up.
  In Gluts new book, on page 312 there is a photo of Corythosaurus with  some
kind of body outline that resembles the skin contour of it's body.  It's head
and neck are cocked so far back in it's post mortem state that it looks as if
the neck were thicker, but it could also mean that it's skin was all bunched
up.  The Edmontosaurus mummy on page 392 shows an unfortunate ventral veiw,
in which I cannot see anything on the neck.
  There are a lot of claims being made about the real life appearance of
dinosaurs.  I've seen Czerkas' paper on dermal spines and that's it.  When
can we all get to see this material published and photographed?
  Just Curious
David Krentz