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Several years ago, I tried to understand the evolution of the dino/bird
ankle and how it might have let dinosaurs achieve an upright gait. Like
the heeled ankle, I felt that the dino/bird ankle would have to have a
which would allow flexing the ankle separate from the toes. I
that one or more of the outer digits of the foot migrated up toward the
ankles and that the muscles used to retract these toes were then used to
the ankles, The eventual reduction of the toes or evolution of the hallux
be a result. I further wondered if cows and horses also evolved this type
approach to allowing another flexible foot joint.
I have found nothing to support or disprove this theory yet. Most bird
diagrams show tendons going all the gay to the toes.
Can anyone help?