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Re: Hadrosaur defense.
> Do we know the top speed of hadrosaurs. Whatever it was it was
> likely to be a little less than their main predator.
If they used speed as a defense, this is true. If they didn't use speed
as a defense -- that is, if there was no selective pressure for speed --
they probably weren't very fast at all. I have trouble picturing a
hadrosaur moving faster than maybe 30kph, but then I have trouble
picturing a rhino with its heavy body and short legs at 40kph, and
rhinos have been clocked at around 40kph. So who knows?
> Herding is an effecient mechanism. It's more difficult to sneak up
> on a herd. It's easier to not select one individual to kill in a
> running herd. Buffalo run lions off at times. Zebra and topi run
> hyena off.
All true, but OTOH most mammal predators are smaller than their prey.
T-rex was rather larger than any hapless hadrosaur it might have run
> Your imagination is as good and important as mine. But they had to
> have at least some defense mechanisms or they would have quickly gone
> the way of the dinosaur. Oops!<g>
Here's another thought for you: maybe those vertical processes on some
hadrosaurs' vertebrae served to make a "phony backbone." T-rex being
bigger than its prey, it was well-positioned to bite down onto the
spinal column, crushing it and crippling the prey. There's at least one
edmontosaur somewhere that has a huge rex-size bite taken out of its
dorsal spines. Maybe the vertical spines were there so that T-rex could
be fooled into not biting deep enough, giving the hadrosaur a chance to