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Re: [Re: [feathers]]

>      Hello Matt , can you give me some help on this question ?

I'll give it a shot.  

<<Penguins and another bird (I forget it's name, but it lives on the 
Galapagos and has real short wings) I know have very robust bones. They 
are more solid than other bird bones, but I'm not sure how much. Also I 
believe Hesperonis had bones like that too. I can't verify too much 
right now, but I might be able to later on in the week. If I do I'll 
give you a ring.>>

Virtually all aquatic birds have thick-walled bones and/or bones that 
are filled with a marrow-like substance.  Hesperornids and baptornids 
had thick-walled bones and reduced pnematization in the vertebrae and 
limb bones.  Loons and grebes are similiar in that they have 
thick-walled bones and reduced pnematization.  Most (all?) flightless 
birds have thick-walled bones and have pnematization, but not to the 
extent of aquatic birds.  Some fossil Anhimidae ( screamers ) have 
reduced pnematization in their vertebrae except for some thoracic and 
sacral vertebrae.  Penguins, some auks, and plotopterids all have 
reduced pnematization with the penguin going to the extreme. 

I think the bird you're thinking about is the Galapagos Flightless 

Basically any aquatic bird that you can think of has thick-walled bones 
and reduced pnematization.

<<Matt Troutman might have more to add on this too, since he seems well 
versed in avian anatomy.>>

Thanks for suggesting me.  

Matt Troutman

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