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At 03:35 PM 2/25/99 PST, Matt Troutman wrote:

><<The advantage Chiappe puts forward for his own tree, with a clade 
>Pygostylia uniting enantiornithines and modern birds, is that it only 
>requires a single evolution of advanced flight characteristics including 
>a keeled sternum, alula, pygostyle, and strut-like coracoids.  Accepting 
>Saururae as a taxon would require that these characters arose twice, 
>once in the enantiornithine line and once in modern birds. Chiappe, in 
>short, concludes that "Saururae" is clearly paraphyletic.>>
>Pygostylia is actually Chatterjee's arrangement of birds above 
>_Protoavis_.  Looks like Chiappe abandoned 'Ornithothoraces'.  

No, I believe it was still in there.  I think Orenstein miswrote a bit of
the above: Pygostylia was (if memory serves) Confusciuornithidae +
Ornithothoraces, and Ornithothoraces was enantiornithines plus orniturines.
(Chiappe mentione briefly a second taxon related to _Confuciusornis_, and
these two together formed the confuciusornithids).

Thomas R. Holtz, Jr.
Vertebrate Paleontologist     Webpage: http://www.geol.umd.edu
Dept. of Geology              Email:tholtz@geol.umd.edu
University of Maryland        Phone:301-405-4084
College Park, MD  20742       Fax:  301-314-9661