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Re: Test flight

In a message dated 3/31/99 4:00:03 PM EST, jrccea@bellsouth.net writes:

<< What was Pteranodon ingens name changed to? >>

Here is the Pteranodonidae listing from Mesozoic Meanderings #2, based mainly
on Christopher Bennett's dissertation and subsequently published taxonomy
(synonymies of nomina dubia are probable, not formal, since, of course, nomina
dubia cannot be characterized well enough to establish synonymy):

Family: PTERANODONTIDAE Marsh, 1876
            Census: 2 genera (1 doubtful),             3 species (1 doubtful)

        = Ornithostomatidae Williston, 1893
        = Ornithostomatinae Williston, 1897
        = Pteranodontes Gadow, 1901
        = Pteranodontinae Williston, 1892
        = Pternanodontinae Kuhn, 1967 [sic]

Genus: Ornithostoma Seeley, 1871 [nomen dubium]
O. sedgwicki Seeley, 1891?
= Ornithostoma seeleyi Lydekker, 1904 [nomen dubium]?
NOTE: Seeley erected the genus Ornithostoma without a type species in January
1871 to accommodate a toothless premaxilla and two other edentulous jaw
fragments. The premaxilla had previously been described by Owen (1859) as the
proximal end of a pterosaurian wing-finger metacarpal. Sometime after learning
of Marsh's Pteranodon, Seeley (1891) realized that the jaw of the North
American genus was similar to his Ornithostoma fragments and intimated that
the two forms might be congeneric. At the same time, he erected the name
Ornithostoma sedgwicki for the British species, which, since it is the first
species coined within Ornithostoma, became the type species of that genus.
This was overlooked by Williston (1893), who synonymized the two genera with
Ornithostoma ingens (formerly Pteranodon ingens) as the "type" species, and by
Lydekker (1904), who unnecessarily created Ornithostoma seeleyi to serve as
type species. Ornithostoma sedgwicki is not to be confused with Ornithocheirus
sedgwickii, for material Owen placed in his new species Pterodactylus
sedgwickii elsewhere in the aforementioned 1859 work. Unwin (in Benton, 1993)
referred the genus Ornithostoma to Pteranodontidae.

Genus: Pteranodon Marsh, 1876
= Geosternbergia Miller, 1978 (as a subgenus)
= Geosternbergia (Miller, 1978) Olshevsky, 1991
= Longicepia Miller, 1978 (as a subgenus)
= Longicepis Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Occidentalia Miller, 1972 (as a subgenus)
= Ornithochirus Cope, 1872 [sic; for Ornithocheirus]
= Ornithostoma Williston, 1893 non Seeley, 1871
= Pteronodon Tonks, 1995 [sic; in Dinosaur Collector's Club Newsletter]
= Sternbergia Miller, 1972/Jordan, 1925 (as a subgenus)
P. longiceps Marsh, 1876? 
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) longiceps (Marsh, 1876) Miller, 1972? 
= Pteranodon (Pteranodon) longiceps (Marsh, 1876) Miller, 1973? 
= Pterodactylus oweni Marsh, 1871 non Seeley, 1864 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus occidentalis Marsh, 1872 [nomen dubium; replacement name for
Pterodactylus oweni Marsh, 1871] 
= Pteranodon (Occidentalia) occidentalis (Marsh, 1872) Olshevsky, 1978 [nomen
= Pteranodon occidentalis (Marsh, 1872) Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithocheirus harpyia Cope, 1872 emend. Newton, 1888 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithochirus harpyia Cope, 1872 [nomen dubium]* 
= Pteranodon harpyia (Cope, 1872) Williston, 1903 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithocheirus umbrosus Cope, 1872 emend. Newton, 1888 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithochirus umbrosus Cope, 1872 [nomen dubium]* 
= Ornithostoma umbrosum (Cope, 1872) Williston, 1897 
= Pteranodon umbrosus (Cope, 1872) Williston, 1892 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus umbrosus (Cope, 1872) Cope, 1874 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus ingens Marsh, 1872 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithostoma ingens (Marsh, 1872) Williston, 1893 [nomen dubium]? 
= Pteranodon ingens (Marsh, 1872) Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium] 
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) ingens (Marsh, 1872) Olshevsky, 1978 [nomen dubium] 
= Pteranodon (Pteranodon) ingens (Marsh, 1872) Olshevsky, 1978 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus velox Marsh, 1872 [nomen dubium]  [juv.]
= Pteranodon velox (Marsh, 1872) Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium]  [juv.]
= Pterodactylus owenii Cope, 1874 [sic]
= Pteranodon comptus Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium; juv.; in part]
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) longiecps Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) marshi Miller, 1972 
= Pteranodon marshi (Miller, 1972) 
= Pteranodon (Pteranodon) marshi (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1973 
= Pteranodon ingens Marsh, 1876 non Marsh, 1872 
= Pteranodon occidentails Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Pteranodon occidetalis Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Pteranodon (Sternbergia) walkeri Miller, 1972 [juv.]
= Geosternbergia walkeri (Miller, 1972) Olshevsky, 1991 [juv.]
= Pteranodon walkeri (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1972 [juv.]
= Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) walkeri (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1978 [juv.]
= Pteranodon oxydactylus McGinnis, 1982 [sic]
P. sternbergi Harksen, 1966  (paraspecies)
= Geosternbergia sternbergi (Harksen, 1966) Olshevsky, 1991? 
= Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) sternbergi (Harksen, 1966) Miller, 1978? 
= Pteranodon (Sternbergia) sternbergi (Harksen, 1966) Miller, 1972? 
= Pteranodon sternberg Harksen, 1966 [sic]
= Pteranodon (Occidentalia) eatoni Miller, 1972?
= Pteranodon eatoni (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1972 [juv.]
= Pteranodon occidentalis Marsh, 1876 non Marsh, 1872 [juv.]
NOTE: This genus is organized according to Bennett (1994). After examining
virtually all of the more than 1100 specimens of Pteranodon known from the
Niobrara Formation, Bennett determined that there are only two valid species
in the genus, well separated stratigraphically and morphologically. All the
other named "species" not referable to the genus Nyctosaurus are either nomina
dubia or junior subjective synonyms of the two valid species, their observed
anatomical differences representing individual or anagenetic variation, the
two sexes (a large "male" morph with narrow pelvic canal and a smaller
"female" morph with wide pelvic canal), and/or growth stages or allometry
(e.g., in crest and specimen sizes). The nomina dubia are based on topotype
Niobrara Formation specimens and may thereby tentatively be synonymized with
one or the other valid species by stratigraphy. Sexes in this listing are
designated according to the presumed sexes of their type specimens. Pteranodon
sternbergi is noted here as a paraspecies because according to Bennett it was
almost certainly ancestral to Pteranodon longiceps; it occurs only in older
Niobrara strata.
Miller (1972) subdivided the genus Pteranodon into four subgenera: Longicepia
Miller, 1972 (type species Pteranodon longiceps Marsh, 1876), Occidentalia
Miller, 1972 (type species Pteranodon (Occidentalia) eatoni Miller, 1972,
based on a specimen originally referred to Pteranodon occidentalis Marsh, 1872
by Marsh, 1876), Sternbergia Miller, 1972 (type species Pteranodon sternbergi
Harksen, 1966), and Nyctosaurus Marsh, 1876 (type species Nyctosaurus gracilis
[Marsh, 1876] Marsh, 1876). However, Longicepia is a junior objective synonym
of Pteranodon itself, as a subgenus, because it contains the type species;
Nyctosaurus is a genus distinct from Pteranodon (Schoch, 1984) that belongs in
its own family (Bennett, 1989); Occidentalia is a junior subjective synonym of
Pteranodon (Wellnhofer, 1978); and Sternbergia is a preoccupied name, later
changed to Geosternbergia by Miller (1978). Olshevsky (1991) considered
Geosternbergia to be a separate genus, but Bennett's analysis renders generic
separation from Pteranodon unnecessary: The supposed differences in skull
morphology between Pteranodon sternbergi and Pteranodon longiceps arose
largely from preservational factors and errors in specimen reconstruction that
appear in the literature. Only the crest shapes and a few minor features of
skull anatomy are diagnostically distinct; postcranially, the species are

Genus: [To be described from Colorado; may be either a new genus or a new
species of Pteranodon; S. C. Bennett, R. T. Bakker, D. B. Weishampel, pers.