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Re: "wing muscles"
Pat Norton wrote:
>I am using the definition of "wing muscles" adopted by Ken Dial and Stephan
>Gatesy who distinguish "wing muscles" from the flight muscles to which I
>think you are referring. Wing muscles, according to those researchers (and
>discussed by Pat Shipman in her book "Taking wing") are muscles that
>originate from and attach to bones of the wing itself and excludes muscles
>that orginate on the carina or furcula. Wing muscles in birds are not used
>for flapping or for flexion or extension of the wing during flapping flight,
>but to act upon the feathers, radius, ulna and the carpometacarpus to adjust
>the wing airfoil shape to enhance manueverability.
It should be made clear that I was not involved in this work. Ken gets all
the credit for acquiring data to support this hypothesis. I personally
find this restricted use of "wing muscles" misleading, although it helped
Ken make his point. Also, be warned that Pat Shipman errs several times in
her recounting of which collaborators were involved with different
experimental projects on flight. Your best bet is to read the original
papers (as always).
Stephen M. Gatesy
Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Providence, RI 02912