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RE: Any in-depth, comprehensive studies on the avian respiratory complex?
The following refs may be useful:
Schmidt-Nielsen, K (1990) Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment
Cambridge, pp 42-47.
This is just an overview. For a more detailed look at how the trick is
Baumel, JJ, JA Wilson & DR Bergren (1990), "The ventilatory movements of
the avian pelvis and tail: the function of the muscles of the tail region
of the pigeon (Columba livia)." J. Exp. Biol. 151:263.
and references cited there. (Apologies for misspellings, the ref is from
some old hand-written notes taken in great haste).
One problem is that the exact respiratory movements may differ according to
whether the bird is flying, standing or perching. The avian system seems
to allow for considerable flexibility.
Vertebrate Notes at
From: Henri Ronkko [SMTP:firstname.lastname@example.org]
Sent: Thursday, June 15, 2000 11:36 AM
To: 2000 16:36:23.EET.DST@spool.iobox.fi
Subject: Any in-depth, comprehensive studies on the avian respiratory
There seems to be many views on the nature of the avian respiratory system.
For example, some claim that uncinate processes are critical for operating
the abdominal air sacs, while some believe they aren't, and consider that
their main function is stiffening the rib cage. Paul said that elongated
posterior ribs are an indicator of air sac breathing, but there doesn't
seem to be consensus on this either. And so on. Do you know if there are
any in-depth, comprehensive studies on the respiratory complex of the
birds? One, that would also make a difference between known fact and wild
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