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Mr. T. rex wrote:
>While running in ramming mode, they would resemble a "cannon ball" in
I've never accepted the intraspecific head butting hypotheses for pachy's.
Intraspecific head butting (based on what we know from extant animals) is a
territorial or display function. "Cannon balls" are designed to kill; a
result which such displays (for a number of reasons) tend to avoid. The
skulls of rams and other known intraspecific head butters, for example, are
flattened in the area of impact. This has the effect of spreading the force
of the impact over a larger area and allowing the participants to make a lot
of noise and appear heroic, but still walk away unharmed from the event.
The skeletal anatomy of pachy's do seem to support some kind of head ramming
activity, but my guess is that it was more likely a defensive adaptation
which was probably effectively directed, when necessary, towards the
soft(er) tissue of predators.