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Terramegathermy: Table 2, Refs, Definitions



"*TABLE 2*
*Size ranges possible with various metabolic systems in water, land and air*
*Metabolic Condition & Habitat*                                        *Size
Range*

*SEMI-AQUATIC - MARINE*
BRADYMETABOLIC, BRADYAEROBIC -       microscopic - 15 tonnes
invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles
TACHYMETABOLIC, TACHYAEROBIC           10 g - 200 tonnes
some tuna, sharks, birds, mammals

*TERRESTRIAL & AERIAL-*
BRADYMETABOLIC, BRADYAEROBIC -       microscopic - 1 tonne
invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles
BRADYMETABOLIC, TACHYAEROBIC              0.2 g - 250 g
larger flying insects
Marginal TACHYMETABOLIC, TACHYAEROBIC     100 g - 1 tonne
basal therapsids, brevischian dinosaurs
Moderate TACHYMETABOLIC, TACHYAEROBIC    10 g - 5 tonnes
derived therapsids, basal mammals, edentates, therizinosaurs?
High TACHYMETABOLIC, TACHYAEROBIC        1.5 g - 100 tonnes
some marsupials, most eutherian mammals, longoschian dinosaurs, birds"

"*REFERENCES* [in the improbable case that there is someone who is
interested _and_ has access to these magazines/books _and_ hasn't already
read them long ago, I haven't read any of these]

BARTLETT, D. AND J. BARTLETT. 1992. Africa's Skeleton Coast. Natl. Geog.
181(1):54-85.
BENNETT, A. F. 1991. The evolution of activity capacity. J. Exp. Biol.
160:1-23.
CASE, T. J. 1978. On the evolution and adaptive significance of postnatal
growth rates in the terrestrial vertebrates. Quart. Rev. Biol. 53:243-282.
CHOY, D. S. J. AND P. ALTMAN. 1992. The cardiovascular system of
_Barosaurus_: an educated guess. The Lancet 340:534-536.
COULSON, R. A. 1979. Anaerobic glycolysis: the Smith and Wesson of the
heterotherms. Pers. Biol. Med. 22:465-479.
CURRIE, P. J. 1983. Hadrosaur trackways from the lower Cretaceous of
Alberta. Acta Pal[...] Pol[...] 28:(1-2):63-73.
CURRIE, P. J. AND P. DODSON. 1984. Mass death of a herd of ceratopsian
dinosaurs. 61-66. In W.-E. Reif and F. Westphal (eds.), Third Symposium on
Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems. ATTEMPTO-Verlag, Tübingen.
DANIELS, C. B. AND J. PRATT. 1992. Breathing in long necked dinosaurs; did
the sauropods have bird lungs? Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 101A:43-46.
DEEBLE, M. AND V. STONE. 1993. Giant crocodiles - deadly ambush in the
Serengeti. Natl. Geog. 183(4):94-109.
DODSON, P. 1991. Lifestyles of the huge and famous. Nat. Hist. 100:30-34.
DUNHAM, A. E., K. L. OVERALL, W. P. PORTER AND C. A. FORSTER. 1989.
Implications of ecological energetics and biophysical and developmental
constraints for life-history variation in dinosaurs. Geol. Soc. Amer.
Special paper 238:1-19.
ELSE, P. L. AND A. J. HULBERT. 1987. Evolution of mammalian endothermic
metabolism: leaky membranes as a source of heat. Amer. J. Physiol.
253:R1-R7.
FARLOW, J. O. 1990. Dinosaur energetics and thermal biology. 43-62. In D. B.
Weishampel, P. Dodson and H. Osmólska (eds.), The Dinosauria. University of
California Press, Los Angeles.
FARLOW, J. O. 1993. On the rareness of big, fierce animals: speculations
about the body sizes, population densities, and geographic ranges of
predatory dinosaurs. Amer. J. Sci. 293-A:167-199.
GRENARD, S. 1991. Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Krieger Publishing
Co., Malabar.
HAYNES, G. 1991. Mammoths, mastodonts, and elephants. Cambridge University,
Cambridge.
HEINRICH, B. 1993. The Hot-Blooded Insects. Harvard University Press:
Cambridge.
HORNER, J. AND J. GORMAN. 1988. Digging Dinosaurs. Workman Publishing, New
York.
JANSKY, L. 1965. Adaptability of heat production mechanisms in homeotherms.
Acta Univ. Carolinae Biol. 1:1-91.
LEAHY, G. D. 1991. Lamellar-zonal bone in fossil mammals: implications for
dinosaur and therapsid paleophysiology. [...] [JVP] 11(Suppl. to 3):42A.
LEDGER, H. P. 1968. Body composition as a basis for a comparative study of
some East African mammals. 289-310. In M. A. Crawford (ed.), Comparative
Nutrition of Wild Animals. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 21.
LOCKLEY, M. G., K. J. HOUCK AND N. K. PRINCE. 1986. North America's largest
dinosaur trackway site. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 97:1163-1176.
MCNAB, B. K. 1983. Energetics, body size, and the limits to endothermy. J.
Zool. Lond. 199:1-29.
OSBORN, T. 1992. Overheated elephants. Nat. Hist. 101(7):2.
OWEN-SMITH, R. N. 1988. Megaherbivores, the Influence of Very Large Size on
Ecology. Cambridge Univ[...]
PAUL, G. S. 1991. The many myths, some old, some new, of dinosaurology. Mod.
Geol. 16:69-99.
PAUL, G. S. 1994. Dinosaur reproduction in the fast lane: implications for
size, success and extinction. 244-255. In K. Carpenter, K. Hirsch and J. R.
Horner (eds.), Dinosaur Eggs and Babies. Cambridge Univ[...]
PERRY, S. F. 1983. Reptilian lungs: functional anatomy and evolution. Adv.
Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 79:1-81.
REID, R. E. H. 1990. Zonal "growth rings" in dinosaurs. Mod. Geol. 15:19-48.
RUBEN, J. 1991. Reptilian physiology and the flight capacity of
_Archaeopteryx:_. Evolution 45:1-17.
SEYMOUR, R. S. 1976. Dinosaurs, endothermy and blood pressure. Nature
262:207-208.
SPOTILA, J. R., M. P. O'CONNOR, P. DODSON AND F. V. PALADINO. 1991. Hot and
cold running dinosaurs: body size, metabolism and migration. Modern Geol.
16:203-227.
VARRICCHIO, D. J. 1992. Taphonomy and histology of the Upper Cretaceous
theropod dinosaur _Troodon_ _formosus_. [...] [JVP] 13:99-104.

*APPENDIX [...]: SOME DEFINITIONS*

Bradyaerobic: Bradyaerobes have low rates of active oxygen consumption (the
reptilian condition).
Bradymetabolic: Rates of oxygen consumption are low under resting conditions
(the reptilian condition).
Ectothermic: In ectotherms the majority of body heat is acquired from the
environment. These have LoMRs (reptilian condition).
Endothermic: In endotherms the majority of body heat is generated
internally. Most examples have HiMRs (avian-mammalian condition), but LoMR
giants like leatherback turtles can conserve enough body heat to be
endothermic (McNab, 1983; Spotila et al., 1991).
Hyperanaerobic: The very high levels of anaerobic power generated by the
muscles of many reptiles.
Tachyaerobic: Tachyaerobes have high rates of active oxygen consumption (the
avian-mammalian condition) [and either have a tracheal system like insects
or leaky cell membranes].
Tachymetabolic: Rates of oxygen consumption are high under resting
conditions (the avian-mammalian condition)."

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"Dinosaurs were warm-blooded, *T. rex* was a fearsome predator, and birds
ARE dinosaurs -- because it just wouldn't be _cool_ any other way."
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