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Re: Fw: avian flight

The locus of the wing motion needed for flying under water is quite similar to the motion for flying in air.  However, there are a couple of differences.  The wing doesn't have to support the weight of the body underwater, so a higher thrust coefficient can be utilised, allowing a different stroke plane and spanwise twist distribution during the wingstroke.  Water is about 814 times denser than air, so the water wing needs less than 1/800th of the area required to fly in air.  For a given body mass, this translates to a span and chord about 1/30th that of a bird that flies in air.  As a visual example, look at the size of a penguin's wing and consider the size that it would have to be for the animal to fly in air.


David Marjanovic wrote: (or somebody did)

Another problem:"flying "underwater could need a different movement than that needed for an active flight in the air.