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Re: David's Statements



> <I was referring to the upper (dorsal) end of the quadrate,
> wasn't I?>
>
>   You were referring to the use of a double-headed quadrate.
> Personally, to understand the "use" of a quadrate with both an
> otic (posteromedial) and squamosal (lateral) head, one has to
> understand the use of this structure in a single-headed quadrate
> and the quadrate in general. Prokinesis cannot, by definition,
> operate without a mobile quadrate (i.e., single-headed, loose
> contact with quadratojugal).

Indeed oviraptorosaurs cannot have had prokinesis, because their quadrates
are flat on both heads and sutured to the rest of the skull.

> <<though is ossified as a "rod," and this suggests the union is
> ligamentous.>>
>
> <Oho! A ligamentous union... Isn't this still more like a
> pygostyle than the plesiomorphic condition? :-)>
>
>   No, it _is_ the plesiomorphic condition, and one can see that
> the distalmost caudals of most dinosaurs have reduced non-centra
> articulations, no neural spines, and no transverse processes,
> suggestive that the primary connection is ligamentous. There are
> two alternatives with morphology: fusion, and reduction of
> count.

Oops!

> [Speaking of Paraves]
>
> <Odd name for a group that includes Aves. :-( .>
>
>   para-, "around or beside" + Aves, birds; can be used then to
> mean "around Aves" or "containing Aves."

Oh. I thought it was "beside, next to", as usually seen in explanations of
*Parasaurolophus*.