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Re: Response II

> I have yet to find a way for any kind of faunal interchange to take place
> between North America and Asia across the Bering land bridge between Late
> Santonian and Late Maastrichtian. The land bridge must have been under
> 100 meters of water during that time. Even today, when the sea level is
> considerably lower, the land bridge remains closed. It took an ice age to
> rid of the water there.
> Before Late Santonian is a different matter entirely. There was extensive
> faunal transfer between the two continents, which is why the same families
> appear in both.

Land can (slowly) rise and fall by hundreds of meters due to tectonic
processes. The Bering land bridge may have been higher at that time -- and
it was higher than today through much of the Cenozoic, when it contributed
to extensive migration between the northern continents.