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Re: Linguistic "budding and reticulation" ... and Roman emperors





Ken Kinman wrote:

Both linguistic and biological evolution are very complicated, and cladistic
classification only gets the job half done in either case, because it
basically ignores anagenesis and reticulation.


Back in the murky depths of basal eukaryote evolution, the "entanglement" and exchange of genes between heterogeneous genomes was integral to the origin of eukaryotes. Whether by cell fusion or endosymbiosis, this event (or series of events) gave us our mitochondria and distinctly chimeric nuclear genome.

And different bacterial species still exchange genes (and gene clusters) on a regular basis - much to the detriment of humankind, since many encode for disease-causing traits.

But does anyone know of any examples of reticulating phenetic characters in animals (mermaids and sphinxes aside). Unless there are examples, I can't see how reticulation would cause problems for the cladistic classification of metazoans.

With plants you can have alloploidy, which complicates things somewhat. Animals don't do this. Though I'd like to see where Mr Spock comes up on a cladogram. :-)



Nick Pharris wrote:


> >I remember seeing an icon of a Byzantine Emperor that > >had the legend in Greek (if I can remember how to > >spell it correctly) "Basileus Romanoi" - King of the > >Romans. > > Basileus Romaioi (I think).

If anyone cares, if it really translates as "king of the Romans", I think
this would be Basileus Romion.

No, I checked. In the dialect of the Byzantine ruling elite, "Basileus Romaioi" = "King of the Romans". But "Basileia Romaion" = "Kingdom of the Romans".


From memory, I think the title "Basileus" first came into use under the
emperor Heraclius (reigned 610 - 641 A.D.).


Tim




------------------------------------------------------------

Timothy J. Williams

USDA/ARS Researcher
Agronomy Hall
Iowa State University
Ames IA 50014

Phone: 515 294 9233
Fax:   515 294 3163

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