From: "Tim Williams" <email@example.com>
To: firstname.lastname@example.org, NJPharris@aol.com, email@example.com
Subject: Re: Linguistic "budding and reticulation" ... and Roman emperors
Date: Mon, 04 Jun 2001 17:48:57 -0500
Ken Kinman wrote:
Both linguistic and biological evolution are very complicated, and
classification only gets the job half done in either case, because it
basically ignores anagenesis and reticulation.
Back in the murky depths of basal eukaryote evolution, the "entanglement"
and exchange of genes between heterogeneous genomes was integral to the
origin of eukaryotes. Whether by cell fusion or endosymbiosis, this event
(or series of events) gave us our mitochondria and distinctly chimeric
And different bacterial species still exchange genes (and gene clusters) on
a regular basis - much to the detriment of humankind, since many encode for
But does anyone know of any examples of reticulating phenetic characters in
animals (mermaids and sphinxes aside). Unless there are examples, I can't
see how reticulation would cause problems for the cladistic classification
With plants you can have alloploidy, which complicates things somewhat.
Animals don't do this. Though I'd like to see where Mr Spock comes up on a
Nick Pharris wrote:
> >I remember seeing an icon of a Byzantine Emperor that
> >had the legend in Greek (if I can remember how to
> >spell it correctly) "Basileus Romanoi" - King of the
> Basileus Romaioi (I think).
If anyone cares, if it really translates as "king of the Romans", I think
this would be Basileus Romion.
No, I checked. In the dialect of the Byzantine ruling elite, "Basileus
Romaioi" = "King of the Romans". But "Basileia Romaion" = "Kingdom of the
From memory, I think the title "Basileus" first came into use under the
emperor Heraclius (reigned 610 - 641 A.D.).
Timothy J. Williams
Iowa State University
Ames IA 50014
Phone: 515 294 9233
Fax: 515 294 3163
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