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Re: Bird and dinosaur respiration
> >How is this mostly one-directional? Doesn't the air utlimately get
> >out through the bird's mouth?
> I think it is referred to a "uni-directional" because the air passes
> the trachea, to the posterior air sacs, lungs, the anterior air sacs, and
> exits via the trachea. This contrasts mammalian respiration, whereby air
> rushes into the lungs and then "turns around" and to leave the lungs
> So, the air birds breath enters and exits via the trachea, but only has
> pass through the lungs.
> There's two processes happening during each inhalation and exhalation.
> Here's the cycle:
Good explanation (AFAIK)!
> >Why do they breath this way? Is it just a way to keep the air sacs
> >for weight-saving purposes?
This doesn't save weight... it just reduces density.
> >What's the benefit of stiff lungs?
> Contraction of the dome-shaped diaphragm and of the external intercostal
> muscles cause the rib cage in mammals to expand and the elastic lungs with
> them. This creates a pressure difference between the outside environment
> the lungs causing air to rush in. During exhalation, internal intercostal
> muscles pull the ribs back and the diaphragm relaxes to original dome
> This causes another pressure difference pushing the air out. With birds,
> compression and expansion of the rib cages act on the air sacs and not the
> lungs, so the lungs don't need to elastic, apparently. Don't know if
> a benefit to being stiff. That's all I remember on the subject.
There is a benefit: Lungs that constantly change shape must be robust enough
not to collapse during this, therefore the walls of the alveoli must be
thicker than a certain limit. Diffusion is easier through thin walls. If the
alveoli were smaller than a certain size, they would stick together during
exhalation, so their size -- means, the size of the lung's surface -- is
limited. The parabronchi of birds hardly move and can therefore be much
thinner than mammalian alveoli, means more surface for gas exchange.
> >If this way of breathing is primarily a flight-based feature, why did
> >apparently breath this way long before they were flying?
> As to the flight assumption: Bats, with their typical mammalian lungs, are
> fairly good fliers, sometimes able to migrate long distances. Therefore,
> answer your question precisely: I dunno.
It is, of course, not a flight-related feature (primarily -- the demands of
flight have surely enhanced it). IMHO it is related to the demands of
endothermy: Amniotes started with fairly simple septate lungs like seen in
many recent "reptiles", mammals/cynodonts/therapsids/whatever improved this
by evolving the mammalian lung, and (apparently) archosauromorphs evolved
the avian lung & air sacs. Coincidentally, the latter is much more efficient
than all other types.
Crocs secondarily lost pneumatization, it seems, and evolved the famous