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David Marjanovic wrote:

> There was also, the famous *Protoungulatum donnae*

Yes, but it doesn't appear at the mentioned site. May it have turned out to
be Paleocene?

I can't recall the stratigraphical details, but _Protungulatum donnae_ is earliest Paleocene. The material comes from the Bug Creek Anthills of Montana.

Some workers have followed Van Valen in regarding _Protungulatum_ as an arctocyonid, at least provisionally (e.g. Lillegraven, 1998). Another approach is to regard this genus as an ungulate (or ungulatomorph) incertae sedis (e.g. McKenna and Bell, 1997; Archibald, 1998).

In a recent study of the "condylarths", Muizon and Cifelli (2000) placed _Protungulatum_ close to the base of the Ungulatomorpha, but more derived than the zhelestids (the most primitive known ungulatomorphs).



Timothy J. Williams

USDA/ARS Researcher
Agronomy Hall
Iowa State University
Ames IA 50014

Phone: 515 294 9233
Fax:   515 294 3163

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