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REVIEW WWB EPISODE II
SPOILER SPOILER SPOILER
SPOILER (your last chance)
Episode 2 of Walking With Beasts (Whale Killer) was screened last
night (Thursday) at 20-30. On Wednesday night, BBC screened a
documentary that was sort of a 'making of' programme. Here are
comments on both. BTW, I gather that the title is a witty pun of Killer
whale. My sides!:)
'Whale Killer' is set at the end of the Eocene and is based in Pakistan,
focusing on animals that frequent the shores and mangroves of the
Tethys as well as the scrubland inland. The theme of the programme
was the collapse of food chains - referred to as the 'Eocene el nino' -
resulting from the incipient glaciation of Antarctica (a bit dodgy I
know, but exactly what was the cause of the grand coupaire?).
The main character was a pregnant _Basilosaurus_ (yes
_Basilosaurus_ is known from Pakistan - the species _B. drazindai_ -
so this is Ok). Finding it hard to find enough food to eat, she leaves the
open ocean and takes to patrolling the channels and lagoons in and
around the mangroves. Some scenes of the basilosaur breaking the
surface were computed-modified scenes of actual live humpbacks or
sei whales: if you looked very carefully you could see (briefly) the
diagnostic features of these species.
In the ocean, the basilosaur encountered a dorudontine pod (see
below). Don't know what genus - they just called it 'dorudont'. As
some members of this list will know, how basilosaurs swam has been
controversial in recent years. WWB depicted _Basilosaurus_ as rather
unflexible except in the distal tail: so far so good, but it did not exhibit
the thoracic/cranial lumbar undulation postulated for this animal by
Emily Buccholtz (and seen also in extant belugas and _Inia_).
Furthermore, I think there was too much oscillation in the distal tail.
Curiously, I noted on the 'making of' programme that McNeil
Alexander was the technical advisor on basilosaur locomotion for
WWB. This seems rather odd, all due respect to Prof. Alexander, and I
suspect the BBC tried to use palaeontologists in the Uk, even if they
weren't the best choice for the particular role. Again, I mean no
disrepect to Prof. Alexander - I just know that there are people better
versed in basilosaur locomotion than he is. Frank Fish was also
employed as a consultant however (has worked with Thewissen on
_Ambulocetus_ swimming and the evolution of cetacean swimming)
and the 'making of' showed him filming giant otters, as well as talking
about locomotion in _Ambulocetus_ and kin.
The 'making of' show also featured Mark Uhen - shown in Zeuglodon
Valley - and there was a particularly naughty scene where he just
happened to dig up a complete in-situ articulated basilosaurid
hindlimb! I strongly suspect that this was rigged for the camera.. I
could be wrong. Larry Witmer posed with a _Gastornis_ skull and a
live macaw called Riley, and dare I say there were several instances in
the 'making of' show where the word _Diatryma_ was used. While
WWB seems to be using _Paraceratherium_ in the literature and
advertising, they are calling these animals indricotheres it would seem.
Mike Benton featured heavily in the 'making of' programme (I suppose
Mike was chosen as his all-round vert palaeo knowledge is
Among the other characters in Episode 2, the basilosaur encountered
_Moeritherium_. Depicted as an amphibious tapir-like beast that eats
seagrass and swims among the mangrove channels. Also living in the
mangroves were individuals of the basal anthropoid _Apidium_.
Depicted as strongly social (which is debatable but I suppose Ok),
there was one scene were the _Apidium_ were crossing a mangrove
channel when one of them got killed and eaten by a shark. See below.
Moving inland, _Andrewsarchus_ was shown as a scavenger-predator
that pestered the brontotheres. In one scene an _Andrewsarchus_ was
foraging along a beach (no mention of the molluscivore idea) - it
stopped to sniff a large vertebra and then killed a marine turtle. The
colour scheme was excellent: identical I think to that of the extant civet
_Civettictis civetta_, but with the base colour light brown instead of
grey. It was described as a 'sheep in wolf's clothing': this would be
clever but the exact same term was used in the David Macdonald series
and book _The Velvet Claw_ (for _Mesonyx_).
The brontotheres did not look so good in my opinion - too much
bending in their forelimbs and too shiny (a la dromaeosaurs in JPIII). I
think they were based on _Embolotherium_, but, hold on... this is from
Mongolia. The horn shape was certainly right for _Embolotherium_,
plus it was hailed as one of the very last brontotheres, so this would fit.
-- _Basilosaurus_ was described as being 60 tons in weight. As with
the pliosaurs in WWD, this is probably an extrapolation based on
extant big whales (see _WWD: The Evidence_, Martill & Naish 2000).
Some of you may recall from way back Greg Paul contesting a similar
estimate of mine - he argued that because they were less blubbery and
altogether more gracile than extant whales, they'd weigh much less.
Apparently even the biggest basilosaur would only be around 20 tons.
To my knowledge no one has done the maths on this, but I think Greg
-- The sharks looked to me exactly the same as the hybodonts featured
in the marine reptile episode of WWD. In fact, I'm fairly sure that the
graphics people recycled the hybodont for WWB. This of course is a
no-no as hybodonts were extinct by the Eocene, plus there is no
Cainozoic shark that really looks like a hybodont.
-- _Apidium_, I think, is earliest Oligocene - not late Eocene.
-- Brontothere subadults appeared to have horns of the same size and
shape as adult males and females. Would have been better if the
subadult's horns were shown as smaller and less developed.
-- The dorudontines were shown as strongly social - they moved
around in a pod, showed clear concerted prey-encircling and mobbing
behaviour, and altogether were depicted as being about as social as
(e.g.) _Stenella_ dolphins. Of course this might have been the case, but
it seems unlikely - this kind of social behaviour in cetaceans is
apparently unique to derived odontocetes (including delphinoids and
sperm whales) and wouldn't be predicted for basal cetaceans.
PS - to those in the UK, did anyone see Karl Shuker on _Who Wants to
Be a Millionaire_?
PPS - speaking of 'Episode II', trailers are now showing in cinemas. As
you'll know if you've seen Harry Potter (not guilty).
PALAEOBIOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP
School of Earth & Environmental Sciences
UNIVERSITY OF PORTSMOUTH
Burnaby Road email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Portsmouth UK tel (mobile): 0776 1372651
P01 3QL tel (office): 023 92842244