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Re: Pterosaur Help



In a message dated 11/24/01 2:57:36 PM EST, mhanson54@home.com writes:

<< I found these other species of Ornithocheirus but I couldn't find their
 describers; O. wiedenrothi, O. cuvieri, O. woodwardi, O. validus, and  O.
 nobilis. Altogether, this gives me 36 species (if I include O. sp., O.
 harpyia [JSS => Pteranodon longiceps], and O.umbrosus [JSS => Pteranodon
 longiceps). Now, as for Nyctosaurus, Pterodactylus, Rhamphorhynchus,
 Germanodactylus, Scaphognathus, Cycnorhamphus, Dimorphodon, and
 Campylognathoides? >>

Not quite fnished with Ornithocheirus. Here's Criorhynchidae:

Family: CRIORHYNCHIDAE Kuhn, 1967
            Census: 4 genera (1 doubtful),             9 species (5 doubtful)

    = Criorhynchinae Hooley, 1914

Genus: Araripedactylus Wellnhofer, 1977
A. dehmi Wellnhofer, 1977â
NOTE: Assigned to this family provisionally, following Wellnhofer's 
unpublished opinion that this genus is similar to if not congeneric with 
Tropeognathus (pers. comm. at 1989 SVP annual meeting). In 1991 he considered 
it Pterodactyloidia incertae sedis. Listed in an as-yet-undescribed new 
family with Dermodactylus by Unwin (in Benton, 1993).

Genus: Amblydectes Hooley, 1914 [nomen dubium]
A. crassidens (Seeley, 1870)
= Ornithocheirus crassidens Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Criorhynchus crassidens (Seeley, 1870) Wellnhofer, 1978 [nomen dubium]
= Pterodactylus crassidens (Seeley, 1870) Sauvage, 1882 [nomen dubium]
= Ptenodactylus crassidens Seeley, 1869 [nomen nudum]
A. eurygnathus (Seeley, 1870) [nomen dubium]
= Ornithocheirus eurygnathus Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Criorhynchus eurygnathus (Seeley, 1870) Wellnhofer, 1978 [nomen dubium]
= Ptenodactylus eurygnathus Seeley, 1869 [nomen nudum]
= Pterodactylus eurygnathus (Seeley, 1870) emend. Olshevsky, 1991 [nomen 
dubium]
= Pterodactylus eurygnatus (Seeley, 1870) Sauvage, 1882 [nomen dubium]*
A. platystomus (Seeley, 1870) [nomen dubium]
= Ornithocheirus platystomus Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Criorhynchus platystomus (Seeley, 1870) Wellnhofer, 1978 [nomen dubium]
= Ornithochirus platystomus (Seeley, 1870) [nomen dubium]
= Pterodactylus platystomus (Seeley, 1870) Sauvage, 1882 [nomen dubium]
= Ptenodactylus platystomus Seeley, 1869 [nomen nudum]
= Ornithocheirus platysomus Newton, 1888 [sic]
NOTE: Generally considered a synonym of Criorhynchus, this genus was 
separated from it by Hooley (1914). It is referred to Criorhynchidae 
provisionally. See also note for Ornithocheirus.

Genus: Criorhynchus Owen, 1874
C. simus (Owen, 1861) Owen, 1874â
= Pterodactylus simus Owen, 1861
= Ornithocheirus simus (Owen, 1861) Seeley, 1870â
= Pterodactylus woodwardi Owen, 1861
= Criorhynchus woodwardi (Owen, 1861) Owen, 1874
= Ornithocheirus woodwardi (Owen, 1861) Seeley, 1870
= Ptenodactylus woodwardi (Owen, 1861) Seeley, 1869
= Ornithocheirus carteri Seeley, 1869 [nomen nudum]
= Ornithocheirus platyrhinus Seeley, 1869 [nomen nudum]
= Ornithocheirus carteri Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Criorhynchus carteri (Seeley, 1870) Owen, 1874 [nomen dubium]
= Ornithocheirus platyrhinus Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Criorhynchus platyrhinus (Seeley, 1870) [nomen dubium]
= Ornithochirus simus Lydekker, 1888 [sic]
C. capito (Seeley, 1870) Owen, 1874 [nomen dubium]
= Ornithocheirus capito Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Pterodactylus capito (Seeley, 1870) Sauvage, 1882 [nomen dubium]
= Ptenodactylus capito Seeley, 1869 [nomen nudum]
C. reedi (Seeley, 1870) Owen, 1874 [nomen dubium]
= Ornithocheirus reedii Seeley, 1870 [nomen dubium]
= Ornithocheirus reedi (Seeley, 1870) [nomen dubium]
NOTE: See also note for Ornithocheirus.

Genus: Tropeognathus Wellnhofer, 1987
T. mesembrinus Wellnhofer, 1987â
= Anhanguera mesembrinus (Wellnhofer, 1987) Kellner & Campos, 1989
T. robustus Wellnhofer, 1987
= Anhanguera robustus (Wellnhofer, 1987) Kellner & Campos, 1989
NOTE: Kellner & Campos (1989) regarded this genus as a junior synonym of 
Anhanguera. Wellnhofer (1991), however, retained it as a distinct genus, 
although he (pers. comm. at 1989 SVP annual meeting) previously regarded this 
genus as a possible junior synonym of Araripedactylus.

And here's Pteranodontidae:


Family: PTERANODONTIDAE Marsh, 1876
            Census: 2 genera (1 doubtful),             3 species (1 doubtful)

    = Ornithostomatidae Williston, 1893
    = Ornithostomatinae Williston, 1897
    = Pteranodontes Gadow, 1901
    = Pteranodontinae Williston, 1892
    = Pternanodontinae Kuhn, 1967 [sic]

Genus: Ornithostoma Seeley, 1871 [nomen dubium]
O. sedgwicki Seeley, 1891â
= Ornithostoma seeleyi Lydekker, 1904 [nomen dubium]â
NOTE: Seeley erected the genus Ornithostoma without a type species in January 
1871 to accommodate a toothless premaxilla and two other edentulous jaw 
fragments. The premaxilla had previously been described by Owen (1859) as the 
proximal end of a pterosaurian wing-finger metacarpal. Sometime after 
learning of Marsh's Pteranodon, Seeley (1891) realized that the jaw of the 
North American genus was similar to his Ornithostoma fragments and intimated 
that the two forms might be congeneric. At the same time, he erected the name 
Ornithostoma sedgwicki for the British species, which, since it is the first 
species coined within Ornithostoma, became the type species of that genus. 
This was overlooked by Williston (1893), who synonymized the two genera with 
Ornithostoma ingens (formerly Pteranodon ingens) as the "type" species, and 
by Lydekker (1904), who unnecessarily created Ornithostoma seeleyi to serve 
as type species. Ornithostoma sedgwicki is not to be confused with 
Ornithocheirus sedgwickii, for material Owen placed in his new species 
Pterodactylus sedgwickii elsewhere in the aforementioned 1859 work. Unwin (in 
Benton, 1993) referred the genus Ornithostoma to Pteranodontidae.

Genus: Pteranodon Marsh, 1876
= Geosternbergia Miller, 1978 (as a subgenus)
= Geosternbergia (Miller, 1978) Olshevsky, 1991
= Longicepia Miller, 1978 (as a subgenus)
= Longicepis Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Occidentalia Miller, 1972 (as a subgenus)
= Ornithochirus Cope, 1872 [sic; for Ornithocheirus]
= Ornithostoma Williston, 1893 non Seeley, 1871
= Pteronodon Tonks, 1995 [sic; in Dinosaur Collector's Club Newsletter]
= Sternbergia Miller, 1972/Jordan, 1925 (as a subgenus)
P. longiceps Marsh, 1876â 
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) longiceps (Marsh, 1876) Miller, 1972â 
= Pteranodon (Pteranodon) longiceps (Marsh, 1876) Miller, 1973â 
= Pterodactylus oweni Marsh, 1871 non Seeley, 1864 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus occidentalis Marsh, 1872 [nomen dubium; replacement name for 
Pterodactylus oweni Marsh, 1871] 
= Pteranodon (Occidentalia) occidentalis (Marsh, 1872) Olshevsky, 1978 [nomen 
dubium] 
= Pteranodon occidentalis (Marsh, 1872) Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithocheirus harpyia Cope, 1872 emend. Newton, 1888 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithochirus harpyia Cope, 1872 [nomen dubium]* 

= Pteranodon harpyia (Cope, 1872) Williston, 1903 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithocheirus umbrosus Cope, 1872 emend. Newton, 1888 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithochirus umbrosus Cope, 1872 [nomen dubium]* 
= Ornithostoma umbrosum (Cope, 1872) Williston, 1897 
= Pteranodon umbrosus (Cope, 1872) Williston, 1892 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus umbrosus (Cope, 1872) Cope, 1874 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus ingens Marsh, 1872 [nomen dubium] 
= Ornithostoma ingens (Marsh, 1872) Williston, 1893 [nomen dubium]â 
= Pteranodon ingens (Marsh, 1872) Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium] 
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) ingens (Marsh, 1872) Olshevsky, 1978 [nomen dubium] 
= Pteranodon (Pteranodon) ingens (Marsh, 1872) Olshevsky, 1978 [nomen dubium] 
= Pterodactylus velox Marsh, 1872 [nomen dubium]  [juv.]
= Pteranodon velox (Marsh, 1872) Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium]  [juv.]
= Pterodactylus owenii Cope, 1874 [sic]
= Pteranodon comptus Marsh, 1876 [nomen dubium; juv.; in part]
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) longiecps Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Pteranodon (Longicepia) marshi Miller, 1972 
= Pteranodon marshi (Miller, 1972) 
= Pteranodon (Pteranodon) marshi (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1973 
= Pteranodon ingens Marsh, 1876 non Marsh, 1872 
= Pteranodon occidentails Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Pteranodon occidetalis Miller, 1972 [sic]
= Pteranodon (Sternbergia) walkeri Miller, 1972 [juv.]
= Geosternbergia walkeri (Miller, 1972) Olshevsky, 1991 [juv.]
= Pteranodon walkeri (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1972 [juv.]
= Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) walkeri (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1978 [juv.]
= Pteranodon oxydactylus McGinnis, 1982 [sic]
P. sternbergi Harksen, 1966  (paraspecies)
= Geosternbergia sternbergi (Harksen, 1966) Olshevsky, 1991â 
= Pteranodon (Geosternbergia) sternbergi (Harksen, 1966) Miller, 1978â 
= Pteranodon (Sternbergia) sternbergi (Harksen, 1966) Miller, 1972â 
= Pteranodon sternberg Harksen, 1966 [sic]
= Pteranodon (Occidentalia) eatoni Miller, 1972â
= Pteranodon eatoni (Miller, 1972) Miller, 1972 [juv.]
= Pteranodon occidentalis Marsh, 1876 non Marsh, 1872 [juv.]
NOTE: This genus is organized according to Bennett (1994). After examining 
virtually all of the more than 1100 specimens of Pteranodon known from the 
Niobrara Formation, Bennett determined that there are only two valid species 
in the genus, well separated stratigraphically and morphologically. All the 
other named "species" not referable to the genus Nyctosaurus are either 
nomina dubia or junior subjective synonyms of the two valid species, their 
observed anatomical differences representing individual or anagenetic 
variation, the two sexes (a large "male" morph with narrow pelvic canal and a 
smaller "female" morph with wide pelvic canal), and/or growth stages or 
allometry (e.g., in crest and specimen sizes). The nomina dubia are based on 
topotype Niobrara Formation specimens and may thereby tentatively be 
synonymized with one or the other valid species by stratigraphy. Sexes in 
this listing are designated according to the presumed sexes of their type 
specimens. Pteranodon sternbergi is noted here as a paraspecies because 
according to Bennett it was almost certainly ancestral to Pteranodon 
longiceps; it occurs only in older Niobrara strata.
Miller (1972) subdivided the genus Pteranodon into four subgenera: Longicepia 
Miller, 1972 (type species Pteranodon longiceps Marsh, 1876), Occidentalia 
Miller, 1972 (type species Pteranodon (Occidentalia) eatoni Miller, 1972, 
based on a specimen originally referred to Pteranodon occidentalis Marsh, 
1872 by Marsh, 1876), Sternbergia Miller, 1972 (type species Pteranodon 
sternbergi Harksen, 1966), and Nyctosaurus Marsh, 1876 (type species 
Nyctosaurus gracilis [Marsh, 1876] Marsh, 1876). However, Longicepia is a 
junior objective synonym of Pteranodon itself, as a subgenus, because it 
contains the type species; Nyctosaurus is a genus distinct from Pteranodon 
(Schoch, 1984) that belongs in its own family (Bennett, 1989); Occidentalia 
is a junior subjective synonym of Pteranodon (Wellnhofer, 1978); and 
Sternbergia is a preoccupied name, later changed to Geosternbergia by Miller 
(1978). Olshevsky (1991) considered Geosternbergia to be a separate genus, 
but Bennett's analysis renders generic separation from Pteranodon 
unnecessary: The supposed differences in skull morphology between Pteranodon 
sternbergi and Pteranodon longiceps arose largely from preservational factors 
and errors in specimen reconstruction that appear in the literature. Only the 
crest shapes and a few minor features of skull anatomy are diagnostically 
distinct; postcranially, the species are indistinguishable.

Genus: [To be described from Colorado; may be either a new genus or a new 
species of Pteranodon; S. C. Bennett, R. T. Bakker, D. B. Weishampel, pers. 
comms.]