Ford and Chure, 2001. Ghost lineages and the paleogeographic and temporal distribution of tyrannosaurids. JVP 21(3) 50A-51A,
A great summary of tyrannosaurid specimens, including early taxa. There are too many specimens to list, but the two most interesting to me are-
Tyrannosauroid tooth (WDIS 539) from the Morrison Formation of Wyoming (Bakker, 1998). Tyrannosaurus langingi (Zhao, 2986) known from teeth (IVPP coll.) from the Berriasian-Hauterivian Upper Chingshing Formation of Yunnan, China.
I have never heard of the latter species, not to be confused with Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis (Yeh, 1975).
Bertini and Franco-Rosas, 2001. Scanning electron microscope analysis on Maniraptoriformes teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Southeastern Brazil. JVP 21(3) 33A.
Over two-hundred teeth from the Bauru Group (Adamantina and Marilia Formations) of Brazil were examined and found to belong to dromaeosaurids (including velociraptorines), troodontids, Richardoestesia gilmorei and four new taxonomic groups.
Headden, 2001. Jaw function in Oviraptoridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). JVP 21(3) 59A.
Oviraptorid jaws have many specializations, somewhat similar to dicynodonts and testudinines. They are comparable to dicynodonts and testudines, but have several characters distinguishing them from other theropods. These include a rasp-like ventral secondary palatal surface, ventrally displaced throat and fused symphyses.
Kobayashi, Azuma, Dong and Barsbold, 2001. Bonebed of a new gastrolith-bearing ornithomimid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Ulansuhai Formation of Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China. JVP 21(3) 68A-69A.
More than twelve nearly complete skeletons of a new ornithomimid from the Ulansuhai Formation (Santonian?) of China. Diagnostic characters include- no depression on ventral scapular edge; posteriorly located coracoid tubercle; transversely compressed manual unguals; deep femoral intercondylar groove; straight pubic shaft; straight ventral pubic foot border. The subadult skull is 183 mm long, hyoids are preserved, there are six sacral vertebrae and no ossified sternum. Fourteen rows of gastralia are present, the scapula is 91% of humeral length, the acromion is weaker than Struthiomimus or Gallimimus and the ulna is bowed toward the radius. There are three carpals- the intermedium, distal carpal I and distal carpal II. Metacarpal I is 82% of metacarpal II, while metacarpal III is 94%. A cladogram was presented, using 26 characters and ten taxa. The topology was-
Both the character list and matrix were present. Unfortunately, few nodes are well supported. Harpymimus is quite well separated from the rest, which may not be surprising. Toothlessness distinguishes ornithomimids, while only the miscoded "arctometatarsus" keeps Archaeornithomimus above Garudimimus (possibly indicating they are synonymous, as previously suggested). The new specimen does seem to clade strongly with "derived ornithomimids" though, as shown by five characters missing in Garudimimus or Archaeornithomimus. The relatively short first metacarpal keeps the new taxon away from the other taxa. I don't think the three characters grouping Anserimimus with Gallimimus are that great, considering my brief examination concluding it is closer to North American taxa, especially Ornithomimus. One character groups North American taxa together (unknown in Anserimimus), while two place Ornithomimus with Dromiceiomimus. The latter is interesting in regard to recent suggestions they are congeneric.
Ryan, Currie and Russell, 2001. New material of Avimimus portentosus (Theropoda) from the Iren Debasu Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of the Erenhot Region of Inner Mongolia. JVP 21(3) 95A.
This describes several avimimid elements from the Iren Debasu Formation (Campanian?) of China. The orbital margin of a frontal (TMP 92.302.104) is difficult to compare to A. portentosus, but is similarily bulbous over the orbits. There is an anterior dorsal (TMP 92.302.140) that resembles the second of Avimimus, but has a shorter hypapophysis and more ventrally placed parapophyses. Another vertebra (TMP 92.302.344) was not identified specifically, but appears to be a mid caudal. There seem to be two small lateral foramina, the centrum is not quadrangular in section and a low neural spine is present. A partial fused scapulocoracoid (TMP 92.302.116) is shown, with a ventrally directed glenoid and low coracoid tubercle. It is very comparable to the holotype, but more incomplete, lacking the ventral coracoid tip, most of the anterior edge and all but the base of the scapular shaft. A proximal humerus (TMP 92.302.117) is extremely similar to the holotype, differing only in minor proportional details. Both proximal (TMP 92.302.149) and distal (TMP 92.302.110) femoral ends are known. The former differs from the holotype in the more lateromedially compressed greater trochantor and less prominent anterior trochantor in proximal view. The distal femur has less extensive articular surfaces in anterior view and a less prominent lateral condyle. In distal view, it is less convex anteriorly. A proximal tibia (TMP 92.302.150) is quite different from A. portentosus, having a bulbous lateral condyle, less dorsally projected cnemial crest, and small posterior process in proximal view. The proximal metatarsus (TMP 92.302.102) is very similar anteriorly and posteriorly, but is differently shaped proximally, being parallelagram-like. Another metatarsus (AMNH 6755), this one complete except for the proximal portion of metatarsal III, is quite unique. It was found in the Central Asiatic Expeditions of 1923 along with another third metatarsal (AMNH 6764). This metatarsus is arctometatarsalian, but the third metatarsal extends up 90% of the metatarsal length in anterior view (and almost as much posteriorly). This contrasts with 45% in A. portentosus. This metatarsus is less slender than the latter, with a more reduced fourth metatarsal and no fifth metatarsal fused to it. I'm not altogether convinced this is an avimimid and not a caenagnathid, for instance. Two pedal unguals (TMP 92.302.119A and B) are quite odd. They are markedly asymmetrical, having smaller lateral halves with much higher grooves on that side. Although there are twelve elements in the RTMP collections labeled Avimimidae, only two can certainly be assigned to that taxon. One, TMP 98.68.22, is a distal third metatarsal from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Judith River Group). The other (TMP 98.8.28) is a second metatarsal that is unfused proximally, unlike A. portentosus. It is from the Scollard Formation. Although the authors assign at least the Iren Debasu material to A. portentosus, I'm not so certain. Those who want photos of the various remains, ask me offlist.
Buckley and Ott, 2001. A new specimen of alvarezsaurid from the Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation. JVp 21(3) 36A-37A.
A third metatarsal from a mononykine alvarezsaurid, discovered in the Hell Creek Formation (Late Maastrichtian) of Montana. It's similar to Mononykus, but not as laterally compressed in the middle and has a sharper plantar ridge. It would be interesting to compare to "Ornithomimus" minimus. Those who want a photo, ask offlist.
Suzuki, Chiappe, Dyke, Watabe, Barsbold and Tsogtbaatar, 2001. A new specimen of Shuvuuia deserti from the Late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Mongolia. JVP 21(3) 107A.
A new specimen of Shuvuuia (MPD 100/120) from the Djadokhta Formation (Campanian?) of Mongolia is described. It includes skull fragments including most of the mandibles, about seven cervicals, about nine dorsals, several dorsal ribs, what may be part of a sacrum, about twenty caudals, scapula, manual phalanges, femora, tibiae, fibula and pedes. The caudals are slender, shortening distally and without elongate prezygopophyses. Over ten were missing, bringing the total to over thirty. The manual elements show Shuvuuia had small digits II and III. Manual digit II has two phalanges, the second one shortest, plus an ungual. The third digit has at least one phalanx and an ungual. The unguals and slender and slightly curved. Phalanx I-1 isn't as modified as Mononykus', being more slender and symmetrical. The first manual ungual is less recurved with a less concave proximal articular surface. The astragalus seems fused to the tibia and the proximal end is very different from Mononykus, being more primitive looking. It has a proximodistally shorter cnemial crest and more posteriorly placed lateral condyle. The metatarsus is very elongate (8% longer than the femur) with a first digit more slender than Mononykus. It is articulated and apparently not retroverted. Two of Sereno's (2000) characters connecting alvarezsaurids to ornithomimosaurs were rejected. First, "Manual I-1 phalanx, dorsomedial tubercle present", the tubercle of alvarezsaurids is actually dorsolateral. Also, "Manual unguals, position of flexor tubercles- displaced distally", Suzuki et al. argue alvarezsaurids lack any manual flexor tubercles. Alvarezsaurus has a keel in the appropriate position however, placed distally, so don't think it appropriate to reject this character yet. I was able to see the huge paper describing this specimen and dealing with all of Sereno's "ornithomimoid" characters, but had very little time to look at it. It will be out next year perhaps, in the LACM publication Contributions to Science. I can't wait. Anyone who wants photos of the specimen, ask me offlist.
Kirkland and Wolfe, 2001. A therizinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) braincase from the Middle Turonian (Cretaceous) of North America. JVP 21(3) 68A.
Describes the braincase of Nothronychus, which is 79mm across the paraoocipital processes. Like Erlikosaurus, the basisphenoid is very pneumatized, the basipterygoid processes and basitubera are indistinct and the paraoccipital processes are hollow. The occipital condyle is wider than tall, and the foramen magnum is 22% wider than the occipital condyle. It differs from Erlikosaurus in having shorter paraoccipital processes and a more horizontally oriented supraoccipital without a nuchal crest.Those who want photos, contact me offlist.
Gillette, Albright, Titus and Graffam, 2001. Discovery and paleogeographic implications of a therizinosaurid dinosaur from the Turonian (Late Cretaceous) of Southern Utah. JVP 21(3) 54A.
A new segnosaur from the Tropic Shale (Early Turonian) includes several dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, ilia, pubes, ischia, femora, tibiae, fibulae, astragali, six metatarsals and phalanges. It has an opisthopubic pelvis and tetradactyl pes.
Gishlick, 2001. Evidence for muscular control of avian style automatic extension and flexion of the manus in the forearm of maniraptors. JVP 21(3) 54A.
Three muscles are involved with the coordinated folding of the forearm and metacarpus in birds- m. extensor metacarpi radialis (EMR), m. flexor metacarpi ulnaris (FMU) and m. extensor metacarpi ulnaris (EMU). These insert in a particular way in birds to allow "two joint" muscles that can automatically flex and extend. Caudipteryx, Deinonychus, Velociraptor and Archaeopteryx are shown to have osteological correlates for these insertions, showing they had an avian-like wing-folding mechanism.
Schweitzer, Jackson, Chiappe, Calvo and Rubilar, 2001. Cretaceous avian eggs and embryos from Argentina. JVP 21(3) 99A.
Eggs with embryos have been found in the Rio Colorado Formation of Argentina. The remains indicate a basal bird, such as an enantiornithine, but the eggs have a prismatic trilaminate microstructure characteristic of neognaths.
Lamb, 2001. Dinosaur egg with embryo from the Cretaceous (Campanian) Mooreville Chalk Formation, Alabama. JVP 21(3) 70A.
A spherical egg with heavy tubercles and an ornithischian embryo. It belongs to the Spheroolithidae.
Nesbitt, 2001. New fossil vertebrate material from the Holbrook Member, Moenkopi Formation (Middle Triassic) from Northern Arizona. JVP 21(3) 83A.
Includes a partial pubis perhaps from a herrerasaurid. Would be remarkable from the Middle Triassic. It did look rather similar to Staurikosaurus...
Martinez, Garcia-Ramos, Pinuela, Lires and Luna, 2001. Dinosaur remains from the principality of Asturias, Spain. JVP 21(3) 78A.
Kimmeridgian remains from the Vega and Lastres Formations. Includes- large theropod proximal caudal; "megalosauroid" teeth; coelurosaur teeth with constricted bases and anterior serrations confined to the distal third; camarasaurid tooth and caudal vertebra; peg-like tooth with diplodocid-like wear facet, but resembling brachiosaurids.
Kurzanov, Efimov and Gubin, 2001. Jurassic dinosaurs of Yakutia. JVP 21(3) 70A.
Late Jurassic beds in Yakutia (Russia) have yielded bones of Allosaurus, coelurosaurs, Camarasaurus and Stegosaurus.
Burge and Bird, 2001. Fauna of the Price River II Quarry of Eastern Utah. JVP 21(3) 37A.
Dinosaurs from the Ruby Ranch Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Four brachiosaurs are represented by cervicals, dorsals, sacrals, caudals, a scapula, limb elements, medipodials, a phalanx and unguals. Two are adults and one is a juvenile. Two large conspecific ankylosaurid individuals, complete with skulls, are present. Fragmentary remains of a nodosaurid and iguanodont are also known.
Leshchinskiy, Voronkevich, Fayngertz, Maschenko, Lopatin and Averianov, 2001. Early Cretaceous vertebrate locality Shestakovo, Western Siberia, Russia: A refugium for Jurassic relicts? JVP 21(3) 73A.
Remains include possible tyrannosaurids, troodontids, "velociraptorines", a bird, titanosaurians and Psittacosaurus sibiricus. The latter is a species I have not heard of, but is undoubtedly the same as- "New Psittacosaurus species to be described from the Lower Cretaceous of the eastern Russia, specimen discovered in the Moscow University collection but unlikely to be described in the near future (R. E. Molnar pers comm. to Olshevsky 1996)", which is in my files. It is apparently known from at least two skeletons and is "the largest and one of the most derived species of the genus".
Malkani, Wilson and Gigerich, 2001. First dinosaurs from Pakistan. JVP 21(3) 77A.
Remains from the Maastrichtian Pab Formation of Pakistan. Cranial, vertebral and appendicular remains of a saltasaurid, as shown by the procoelous caudal centra, large olecranon process and biconvex first caudal centrum. It is differentiated from other taxa by the short broad dorsal centra and very slender limb proportions.
Williamson and Carr, 2001. Dispersal of pachycephalosaurs and tyrannosauroids between Asia and North America. JVP 21(3) 114A.
Ornatotholus is said to be a juvenile Stegoceras, agreeing with Sullivan (2000). Siamotyrannus is not considered a tyrannosauroid. A phylogenetic analysis using 106 characters and 16 taxa was performed, resulting in the following topology-
`-+-New Mexico taxon
| |-Albertosaurus sarcophagus
| `-Albertosaurus sp. nov.
Note Dryptosaurus is a tyrannosauroid, as in Holtz's new analysis (coming in the next Details on SVP). The Alabama taxon (RMM 6670) is from the Campanian Demopolis Formation, while the New Mexico taxon (NMMNH P-27469) is from the Late Campanian Kirtland Formation. In the references was the following- Carr and Williamson, in prep. Phylogeny of the Tyrannosauroidea. Photos of the skulls of these new taxa are available to those who contact me offlist.