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Re: Cost in Aquatic Birds (long)
Thanks for the additional input Pat. I'm in total agreement with you on
both counts, which is the reason that I referred to underwater 'flying'
rather than to swimming. And I'd add that underwater swimming can use a
different wingstroke than underwater flying. Personally, I can't
qualitatively reconcile the kinematics required for efficient thrust
production under water with the kinematics required for efficient lift
and thrust production in air.
Patrick Norton wrote:
> I would qualify Jim's statement with the observation that not all
> swimming by birds is underwater swimming. ......... I'm just offering
> this as an observation---I don't believe the avian flight stroke
> evolved in response to selection for swimming of any sort.