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BRODIE & SWIMMING BIRDS
The McHenry asked...
> 1. Does anyone know the contact details for Professor
> Paul Brodie?
I recall from previous searches that there is unfortunately a
prolific saxophonist also named Paul Brodie - the first
Brodie has absolutely tons of stuff on the www whereas the
one we're interested in is much harder to locate. John-
Michel Mazin should have his email if you can't get it
(Mazin is at Jean.Michel.Mazin@univ-poitiers.fr).
> 2. Can anyone point me in the direction of some
> references addressing the diving / swimming capabilities
> of birds.
A good place to start is...
Johansson, L. C. & Lindhe Norberg, U. M. 2001. Lift-based
paddling in diving grebe. _The Journal of Experimental
Biology_ 204, 1687-1696.
(which - wohoo!! - can be downloaded for free at...
This covers what's been done on grebes (very little) and also
summarises pretty much all of the previous work on all
other diving birds [Incidentally, Johansson and Lindhe
Norberg's contention was also published in _Nature_ (2000,
vol. 407, 582-3)]. Most of the literature is actually on
physiology and mechanical studies are relatively few. But
Baudinette, R. V. & Gill, P. 1985. The energetics of 'flying'
and 'paddling' in water: locomotion in penguins and ducks.
_J. Comp. Physiol._ B 155, 373-380.
Brooks, A. 1945. The under-water actions of diving ducks.
_Auk_ 62, 517-523.
Owre, O. T. 1967. Adaptations for locomotion and feeding
in the Anhinga and the Double-crested cormorant.
_Ornithological Monographs_ 6, 1-138.
Raikow, R. J. 1970. Evolution of diving adaptations in the
stifftail ducks. _Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool._ 94, 1-52.
Torne, M. W. & Wrubleski, D. A. 1988. Underwater
foraging behaviour of Canvasbacks, Lesse scaups and
Ruddy ducks. _Condor_ 90, 168-172.
Townsend, C. W. 1909. The use of wings and feet by diving
birds. _Auk_ 26, 234-248.
There is also tons of stuff on penguin swimming - I don't
have time to dig out these refs too - but if you have Solly's
(yes, Lingham-Soliar has no last 'e') papers on mosasaur and
(ahem) plesiosaur locomotion they are cited therein.
School of Earth & Environmental Sciences
University of Portsmouth UK, PO1 3QL
tel: 023 92846045