[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index][Subject Index][Author Index]

Mesozoic Neornithes



Hope's excellent chapter in Mesozoic Birds clears up the phylogeny of many
Mesozoic neornithines.  Here's all the important information-

Neornithes Gadow 1893

Ceramornis Brodkorb 1963
C. major Brodkorb 1963
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (UCMP 53959) proximal coracoid
Comments- Hope notes this taxon shows a few plesiomorphic charadriiform-like
characters, but lacks charadriiform synapomorphies.

Gallornis Lambrecht 1931
G. straeleni Lambrecht 1931
Neocomian, Early Cretaceous
Auxerre, France
Holotype- humeral fragment, proximal femur
Comments- Hope considers this a neornithine based on two femoral characters.

Gobipipus Chatterjee, Kurochkin and Mikhailov 1998?
G. reshetovi Chatterjee, Kurochkin and Mikhailov 1998?
Late Cretaceous
Mongolia
Holotype- (PIN 4492-3) embryo
Comments- Not mentioned in Mesozoic Birds, but Chatterjee et al. claim it is
neornithine.

Laornis Marsh 1870
L. edvardsianus Marsh 1870
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
Holotype- tibiotarsus
Comments- Hope does not discuss this, Palaeotringa or Tytthostonyx because
of their controversial temporal placement.

Palaeotringa Marsh 1870
P. littoralis Marsh 1870
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
P. vagans Marsh 1872
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US

"Palaeotringa" vetus Marsh 1870
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey; Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (ANSP 13361) distal tibiotarsus
Referred- (AMNH 25221) distal tibiotarsus
Comments- Hope notes this is similar to gruids, idiornithids and
presbyornithids.

unnamed neornithine (Kakegawa, 1999)
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Orannai Formation, Japan
Material- (NSMJ coll.) sacrum, scapula, pelvis, fibula, pedal phalanx

undescribed neornithine (Hope, 2002)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Material- (UCMP 53960) two cervical fragments

undescribed neornithine (Elzanowski and Brett-Surman, 1995)
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
Material- ((UCMP 117598)
Comments- Said to be of "graculavid aspect".

undescribed neornithine (Nessov, 1992)
Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Bissekty Formation, Uzbekistan
Material- (PO 3434a) distal tarsometatarsus

Neornithes indet. (Kurochkin, 1995)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Baruungoyot Formation, Mongolia
Material- tarsometatarsus (40.3 mm)
Comments- Referred to the Presbyornithidae by Kurochkin (1995), but said to
be undiagnostic past Aves (=Neornithes?) by Kurochkin et al. (2002).

Galliformes (Temminck 1820)

Quercymegapodiidae Mourer-Chauvire 1992

Palintropus Brodkorb 1970
P. retusus (Marsh 1892) Brodkorb 1970
= Cimolopteryx retusa Marsh 1892
= Apatornis retusus Brodkorb 1970
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (YPM 513) proximal coracoid
P. sp. nov. (Hope, 2002)
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Foremost Formation, Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material- (RTMP 86.36.126) proximal coracoid
(RTMP 86.146.11) proximal scapula
(RTMP P88.116.1) proximal coracoid
(RTMP coll.) five partial coracoids
Comments- Hope finds three synapomorphies suggest Palintropus is a
quercymegapodiid, though the supracoracoid foramen must be a reversal.

Anseriformes (Wagler 1830)

Anatalavis Olson and Parris 1987
A. rex (Shufeldt, 1915) Olsen and Parris 1987
= Telmatornis rex Shufeldt 1915
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
Holotype- (YPM 902) humeri

Anseriformes incertae sedis

Apatornis Marsh 1873
A. celer (Marsh 1873) Marsh 1873
= Ichthyornis celer Marsh 1873
Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Smoky Hill Member of Niobrara Formation, Kansas, US
Holotype- (YPM 1451) partial sacrum
Referred- ?(YPM 1734) scapula, coracoid, partial furcula, sternum, radius,
metacarpus, manual phalanges, tibiotarsus, fibula
Comments- Hope finds this is definitely neornithine, and similar to
presbyornithids and anatids.  The tibiotarsus may not be correctly referred.

undescribed possible anseriform (Hope, 2002)
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Judith River Group, Alberta, Canada
Material- (RTMP 93.19.1) proximal coracoid

undescribed possible anseriform (Elzanowski and Brett-Surman, 1995)
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
Material- (UCMP 117599)

Presbyornithidae + Anatidae

Presbyornithidae Wetmore 1926

Teviornis Kurochkin, Dyke and Karhu 2002
T. gobiensis Kurochkin, Dyke and Karhu 2002
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
Holotype- (PIN 4499-1) distal humerus, radiale, ulnare, carpometacarpus (65
mm), phalanx II-1 (30.8 mm), phalanx III-1

undescribed presbyornithid (Noriega and Tambussi, 1995)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lopez de Bertodano Formation, Antarctica
Material- (MLP 93-1-3-1) partial skeleton
(MLP 93-1-3-2) partial skeleton

undescribed presbyornithid (Hope, 2002)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation
Material- coracoid

Prebyornithidae indet. (Hope, 2002)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Material- (AMNH 21929) partial scapula
(AMNH 22602) anterior sternum
(AMNH 22603) proximal scapula
(YPM 868) proximal scapula

Charadriiformes (Huxley, 1867)

Cimolopteryx Marsh 1892
= "Cimolopteryx" Marsh 1889
Comments- Hope refers this tentatively to the Charadriiformes based on seven
derived, but not unique characters.
C. rara Marsh 1892
= "Cimolopteryx rara" Marsh 1889
?= Cimolopteryx petra Hope 2002
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Frenchman Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada; Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (YPM 1805) coracoid
Referred- (AMNH 21911, holotype of Cimolopteryx petra) proximal coracoid
(SMNH P1927.936) proximal coracoid (Tokaryk and James, 1989)
(UCMP 53962) proximal coracoid
? (UCMP 53964) distal carpometacarpus
Comments- Cimolopteryx petra is identical to C. rara, except slightly
smaller.  Thus, I do not see why Hope creates a new species for it.
C. maxima Brodkorb 1963
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (UCMP 53973) proximal coracoid
Referred- (ANSP 15867)
(UCMP 53957) proximal coracoid
Comments- Too little material is preserved in any of the specimens to assess
the appropriateness of the referral of this species to Cimolopteryx.
C. sp. (Hope, 2002)
Middle Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Dinosaur Park Formation, Alberta, Canada
Material- (RTMP 93.116.1) proximal coracoid

"Cimolopteryx" minima Brodkorb 1963
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (UCMP 53976) proximal coracoid
Referred- (AMNH 13011) proximal coracoid
(ANSP 15868) proximal coracoid
(USNM 181923) coracoid
Comments- This includes "undetermined species 1" of Hope 2002, as she says
they are in the same "species complex".

Graculavus Marsh 1872
= Limosavis Shufeldt 1915
Comments- Hope refers this tentatively to the Charadriiformes based on ten
derived, but not unique characters.
G. velox Marsh 1872
= Limosavis velox Lambrecht 1933
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Navesink or basal Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
Holotype- (YPM 855) proximal humerus
Referred- ?(NJSM 11854) metacarpal II
G. augustus Hope 1999
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (AMNH 25223) proximal humerus
G. anceps Marsh 187?
Comments- Hope finds this to be indeterminate
G. agilis Marsh 187?
Comments- Hope finds this to be indeterminate
G. "idahensis" Shufeldt 1915
nomen nudum

Telmatornis Marsh 1870
T. priscus Marsh 1870
= Telmatornis affinis Marsh 1870
= Graculavus pumilis Marsh 1872
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Navesink Formation, New Jersey, US
Holotype- (YPM 840) distal humerus
Referred- (ANSP 15360) distal humerus
?(ANSP 15541) pedal phalanx II-1
?(NJSM 11853) distal tarsometatarsus
?(NJSM 11900) proximal ulna
(YPM 845, holotype of Telmatornis affinis) distal humerus
(YPM 850, holotype of Graculavus pumilis) proximal humerus, distal
metacarpus, forelimb fragments
Comments- Comments- Hope refers this tentatively to the Charadriiformes
based on fifteen derived, but not unique characters.

"Lonchodytes" pterygius Brodkorb 1963
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (UCMP 53961) distal carpometacarpus
Comments- Hope notes this is similar to larines.

unnamed possible charadriiform (Hope, 2002)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Argentina
Material- (PVL 4730) proximal tibiotarsus

undescribed possible charadriiform (Case and Tambussi, 1999)
Early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Cape Lamb strata, Antarctica
Material- (St. Mary's College coll.) tarsometatarsus

Pelecaniformes Sharpe 1891

Torotix Brodkorb 1963
T. clemensi Brodkorb 1963
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (UCMP 53958) distal humerus
Comments- Hope refers this to the Charadriiformes based on one unique
synapomorphy, and five synapomorphies only rarely found in other clades.

Phalacrocoracidae Bonaparte 1853

"Graculavus" lentus 1877
Late Cretaceous
Austin Chalk, Texas, US
Holotype- (YPM 1796) distal tarsometatarsus
Comments- Hope finds ths to be similar to phalacrocoracids.

unnamed phalacrocoracid (Hope, 2002)
Late Maastrchtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Material- (AMNH 25272) femur

undescribed phalacrocoracid (Kurochkin, 1995)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
Material- (PIN coll.) scapula

Procellariiformes Furbringer 1888
= Lonchodytidae Brodkorb 1963

Lonchodytes Brodkorb 1963
L. estesi Brodkorb 1963
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Holotype- (UCMP 53954) distal tarsometatarsus
Comments- Comments- Hope refers this to the Procellariformes based on four
synapomorphies.  Three more synapomorphies suggest it is a member of the
clade containing Procellariidae, Oceanitidae and Pelecanoididae.

Tytthostonyx Olson and Parris 1987
T. glauconiticus Olson and Parris 1987
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US

unnamed Procellariiformes (Olson and Parris, 1987)
Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian, Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene
Hornerstown Formation, New Jersey, US
Material- (ANSP 15713)
(NJSM 11302)

Diomedeidae Gray 1840

undescribed diomedeid (Kurochkin, 1995)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
Material- furcular fragment

Gaviiformes Wetmore and Miller 1926

Neogaeornis Lambrecht 1929
N. wetzeli Lambrecht 1929
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Quiriquina Formation, Chile
Holotype- (GPMK 123) tarsometatarsus

Polarornis Chatterjee 2002
P. gregorii Chatterjee 2002
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lopez de Bertodano Formation, Antarctica
Holotype- skull, few cervical vertebrae, limbs

Psittaciformes Wagler 1830

unnamed psittaciform (Stidham, 1998)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Lance Formation, Wyoming, US
Material- (UCMP 143274) anterior dentary

As for other birds referred to Neornithes by some-
Ambiortus is the sister group to Carinatae (Chiappe, 2002).
Euorlimnornis is probably Carinatae incertae sedis (Hope, 2002).
Gansus is a non-neornithine ornithurine (Hope, 2002).
Gargantuavis is at least a member of the Apsaravis + Ornithurae clade, but I
cannot state anything more definite.
Horezmavis is Euornithes incertae sedis (Hope, 2002).
Otogornis is a euenantiornithine (Chiappe, 2002)
Palaeocursornis is Apsaravis + Ornithurae incertae sedis (modified from
Hope, 2002).

Mickey Mortimer