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Types of Types
I don't have the ICZN 1999 edition in front of me but OTOMH:
Syntype: **no longer recognized by ICZN**
Type series: collection of specimens in original description. (somewhat like
'syntype' when it existed)
Lectotype: If no holotype was specified but there was a type series
("syntypes" of older lingo), a lectotype can be designated. This is the new
'type' specimen, and has to have been in the original type series (i.e.
differs from holotype b/c it wasn't designated in the original description).
Paralectotype: after a lectotype has been designtated, all the other
specimens in the original type series are now paralectotypes ("leftovers").
(this **is** a valid term according to the current ICZN)
Plesiotype: **no longer recognized**. I believe 'paralecto' is the
appropriate term now.
> Topotype: A specimen from the same locality as a type specimen (that is, a
> holotype or lectotype specimen) and, by virtue of its similarity to the
> specimen, considered to belong to the same species.
> Paralectotype: A referred specimen singled out for some reason by its
> describer, often because it is part of an original syntype series. This
> has no scientific significance any more.
> Syntype series: A set of specimens considered to belong to a single
> and all together serving as the collective type specimen. When an author
> doesn't designate a particular specimen from a set of specimens to be a
> holotype or lectotype specimen, the whole set of referred specimens in the
> description is taken to be the syntype series. Later authors may remove
> specimens from a syntype series or may designate a particular specimen in
> syntype series to be the lectotype specimen. You can see the nomenclatural
> problems that a syntype series can create(!).
> There's also a neotype: A specimen designated as a type specimen when the
> original type specimen of a species is lost or officially (by ICZN
> declared unusable as a type specimen.