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Re: Manual?



Quoting "Jaime A. Headden" <qilongia@yahoo.com>:


>   I looked up Latin sources on the origin of "manual." It seems to be a
> new ending, that does not naturally exist in Latin. 

I'm not sure what you mean.  _-a:lis_ (colon means long vowel) is a very common 
adjective-forming suffix in Latin.


> The given fourth
> declension genetive for the Latin "manus" happens to be "manus" or
> "manuum", though the last is also nominative. 

The stems of all 4th declension nouns end in an underlying -u.

The genitive singular is _manu:s_ (note long vowel), as opposed to nominative 
singular _manus_ (short vowel).  The long vowel in the genitive is the result 
of the merger of the stem vowel in _manu-_ with the vowel in the genitive 
ending _-is_:  manu- + -is > manu:s.

The dative/ablative plural form _manibus_ arises because of a general rule in 
Latin which changes all vowels in non-initial, non-final syllables, when 
followed by a single consonant, to /i/:  manu- + -bus > manubus > manibus.  
Some early sources do show the form _manubus_.


> The -u- modifier is used in
> extension of adding a suffix or additional root, and in manufactus,
> manuscriptum, etc. 

In _manus_, the -u- is simply part of the root, rather than a suffix.


> "Manifold" does not come from Latin,
> but appears to be a corruption of the Latin "multiplex",

Right.  "Manifold" is what is known as a gloss, in which a multi-part word in 
one language is broken up, each part translated into the other language, and 
then stuck back together.

_mult(o)_ "many" + _plex_ "folded" -> many + fold -> manifold

German is chock full of glosses from Latin words.

Whew.  Something tells me Nick has too much time on his hands.

Oh, uh... _Dinosauri: gelidissimi: sunt!_

--N