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Re: Manual?

> The given fourth
> declension genetive for the Latin "manus" happens to be "manus" or
> "manuum", though the last is also nominative.

The last is not a nominative, as
www.math.ohio-state.edu/~econrad/lang/ln4.html correctly states. I wonder
why they included the locative, though, which exists only for cities*,
villages and small islands, for house (domus: domi -- at home) and for
countryside (rus: ruri) (in classical Latin, that is... should have been
more common earlier).

* Systema Naturae was printed _Holmiae_ -- in [Stock]holm, artificial Latin.

> The -u- modifier

It isn't a modifier, it's part of the root.

> manufactus, manuscriptum, etc.

Manu factus = something masculine made by hand, no extra word for "by"
necessary because the hand is in the ablative. Manu scriptum = something
neutral written by hand. The ablative has no ending, instead the vowel with
which the root ends is lengthened. (E is added when the root ends in a
consonant. Artefactum = something made by means of art -- ars, artis).

> Late Latin offers the first true origin of this
> word, which was loaned into Old French

hm, retained I'd say

> "manualis" as an adjective from "manuale",
> which refers to the cover of a book.

Both are the same adjective, -is is m/f, -e is n. -- To the cover? Sure?

> manipulate

And here, like in manibus, we have "vowel weakening" -- unstressed vowels
change over time. Manipula:re is stressed on the long syllable (secondary
stress, for poets, on the first syllable). Also applies to Maniraptora.

mu:s -- mu:ris (mouse)
lepus -- leporis (hare -- *Lepus*, Leporidae...)
onus -- oneris (burden)

Scipio's tombstone (pre-classical) has tempestatebus instead of classic
tempestatibus. Hard to tell apart by hearing anyway. In that time they also
often wrote -tumus instead of -timus (maritimus... stressed on the 2nd, or
better 3rd-to-last, syllable).

>   Two great sources:
> http://www.geocities.com/etymonline/m1etym.htm

Gives it correctly, though with too short explanations.

> http://www.math.ohio-state.edu/~econrad/lang/ln4.html

I wonder why they put the vocative in the last position, traditionally it's
number 5, if not merged with the vocative, to which it's identical except in
the singular of -us, -i words. Like the Romans themselves, they don't
distinguish long and short vowels, which would be pretty useful. In Linné's
times they sometimes did it, however, in the A declension where nominative
and ablative singular look identical otherwise
www.math.ohio-state.edu/~econrad/lang/ln1.html; you'll find words ending in
â in Systema Naturae.