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*To*: "dinosaur-usc.edu" <dinosaur@usc.edu>*Subject*: Models and criteria*From*: John R Hutchinson <jrhutch@stanford.edu>*Date*: Sat, 21 Sep 2002 13:45:27 -0700*Reply-to*: jrhutch@stanford.edu*Sender*: owner-dinosaur@usc.edu

1. Showing that the model method we used actually does not apply to living animals in general. I put this in as a rhetorical case more than as a good option. It would take tons of work to do, and would basically show that some 30 yrs of animal experiments and modeling all are wrong. It would have to show more than just that the numbers are a little off; it would have to show that they are way off, changing the conclusions drastically.

2. Showing that the data we put into the model are inaccurate for Tyrannosaurus (because of scaling assumptions, parameters excluded, etc.), and using the model or a modification of it to show that more/better data give a fundamentally different result. Such an approach would not only need to show that the parameters I put into the model were bad, in my opinion, it would also be best if it showed that the parameters we left out of the model on a conservative basis do not matter. In other words, finding a solution for a very low T value that makes sense (i.e. not using 1cm muscle fiber lengths). This is realistic; it could be done.

3. Similar to above, developing a model that works much better than the one we used, and gives different results that totally contradict ours, yet still being validated for living animals. Very do-able. I may even unwittingly do it with some of my newer models; who knows. I'm not afraid to prove myself wrong.

4. Discovery of an unambiguous 11-20m/s running adult tyrannosaur (or other huge theropod) trackway. Quite conceivable.

1. Developing a biomechanical model that shows tyrannosaurs could run 11-20m/s, and works for a variety of living animals and small dinos. I know they're doing something like this, and I might stumble across the same thing and show that I was wrong.

2. The trackway mentioned above.

3. Showing that the anatomy Greg sees as being indicative of 11-20m/s running really results in that speed. Perrsonally, I think this would require a biomechanical approach similar to #1 above, but there might be another way (e.g. a good non-biomechanical scaling study) that would be convincing that I haven't thought of.

--John R Hutchinson

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