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Iguanodon(?) sp. and Jixiangornis
Neraudeau et al., 2003. A new Early-Cenomanian paralic deposit with fossil
wood, amber with insects and Iguanodontidae (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) at
Fouras (Charente-Maritime, southwestern France). C.R. Palevol: 221-230
I used Babel Fish to translate the part of the paper describing Iguanodon(?)
sp. so I'm little fuzzy on some details. Instead of trying to re-describe
the entire thing, I'm copying my translation into this email.
"The remainders of dinosaurs are represented in the layer of Fouras by about
fifty osseous fragments, including only one about fifteen decimeteres.
Except for a right ulna (Figs. 2.1A and B) and distal end of a tibia (Figs.
2.C and D), these fragments are not for the majority, identifiable with
The preserved ulna is a 25.5 cm long bone. In lateral view, its posterior
margin is right[?] and not concave, as in Iguanodon bernissartensis [ 25 ],
Iguanodon atherfieldensis [ 26 ] or Ouranosaurus nigeriensis [ 30 ]. The
proximal end is widened and has an olecranon process more developed than
that of Hadrosauridae. A concavity intended to receive the humerus is
arranged on the former face of the olecranon process. Ventral to this
concavity, a vertical and prominent osseous peak extends distally for ten
centimeters. This peak longitudinally divides the anteroproximal face of the
ulna into two concavities. Side concavity thus formed is intended for the
articulation with the radius. The section of the proximal end has a form of
T at the specimen of Fouras, whereas it is U-shaped in Ouranosaurus [ 30 ].
In Iguanodon atherfieldensis, the longitudinal peak develops proximmally on
the anteromedial face of the ulna, then extends distally by dividing the
former face from the ulna [ 26 ]. The width of the ulna decreases gradually
in front of the proximal end of the ulna, to grow again with the approach of
the distal end. The distal end is slightly compressed transversely. It
anteromedially presents a light depression of which was to form part the
distal end of the radius. Contrary to Ouranosaurus [ 30 ], the distal end is
not curved backwards.
The distal end of the right tibia of the specimen of Fouras is lengthened
transversely. The malleoli are strongly damaged, but the external malleolus
extends distally, definitely further the internal malleolus. The two
malleoli are separated by a marked projection. The former face of the distal
end is plane, and its strongly convex posterior face as in Camptosaurus
prestwichii [ 10(fig. 10-L) ]. This character makes it possible to
distinguish the distal extremity from Fouras of those of Iguanodon
atherfieldensis and Iguanodon bernissartensis, at which the former and
posterior faces of the distal end of the tibia are concave [ 25, 26 ].
If the two bones described previously are clearly identifiable like
pertaining to Iguanodontidae, their attribution with the genus Iguanodon
remains dubious. The remainders of Iguanodontidae are largely represented in
the European layers of the lower Cretaceous, and two species, Iguanodon
bernissartensis [ 3 ] and Iguanodon atherfieldensis [ 14 ], were described
in detail [ 25, 26 ]. The genus Rhabdodon [ 17 ], is only Iguanodontidae
known in the higher Cretaceous (Campanien and Maastrichtien) of Western
Europe. Although it is present in many European layers [ 1, 4, 11, 15, 27 ],
its membership of Iguanodontidae only was recently suggested [ 29 ]. The
discovery of new remainders of Iguanodontidae in lower Cénomanien of the
layer of Fouras brings to us significant data from a point of view
biostratigraphic. If the membership of the Iguanodon kind can be confirmed
by new discoveries, it will extend the stratigraphic distribution of this
genus to the higher Cretaceous. This discovery stresses also the importance
of the layer of Fouras: the vertebrate remainders continental ones in
general, and dinosaurs in particular, are indeed very rare in France for the
period extending from Cénomanien in Santonien [ 6 ]."
Ji Qiang, Ji Shuan, Zhang Hongbin, You Hailu, Zhang Jianping, Wang Lixia,
Yuan Changri, & Ji Xinxin, (2002). A new Avialian Bird - Jixiangornis
orientalis gen. et sp. nov. - from the Lower Cretaceous of Western Liaoning,
NE, China. Journal of Nanjing University (Natural Sciences) 38(6): 723-736
From the Abstract-
"A well-preserved specimen of an avialian bird with a complete skull and
postcranial bones was found from the lower part of the Yixian Formation
(Early Cretaceous) in Sihetun area of Beipiao City, western Liaoning, NE
China. It is characterized by the development of a beak, the large sternum
with a weak keel, the typical U-shaped furcula, the forelimbs much longer
than the hindlimbs (about 131:100) and the long tail with about 27 caudal
vertebrae. Due to the characters mentioned above, the new avialian bird is
surely capable of flight stronger than Shenzhouraptor and Archaeopteryx. It
is described in detail and named as Jixiangornis orientalis gen. et sp. nov.
in this paper."
Ji et al. assign it to the Avialae (Gauthier, 1986)
Material- premaxilla, nasal, frontal, lacrimal, maxilla, orbit, jugal,
quadrate, dentary, hyoid, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, sacral
vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, scapula, furcula, sternum, uncinate processes,
sternal ribs, coracoids, dorsal ribs, gastralia, manus (MC I, MC II, MC III,
M I-1, M II-1, II-2, III-3, radiale, semilunate carpal, radiale), ulna,
radius, humerus, ilium, ischium, pubis, femur, tibiotarsus, fibula,
calcaneum, astragalus, complete pes
The premaxilla is not tapered rostrally. The maxilla contacts external
naris. Nasals are rostrodorsally depressed (?). Premaxillary teeth absent
are absent. Maxillary teeth are absent. The antorbital fenestra has not
The dentary teeth are absent. The dentary is rostroventrally curved. The
external mandibular fenestra is present. The dentary is ~60-75% of
mandibular length. The posteroventral process of the dentary is very long,
and extends for most of the length of the external mandibular fenestra.
There are quadrangular lateral processes on sternum. The sternal plates are
ossified and co-fused with a midline keel. The furculae is robust and
U-shaped. The acromion process of the scapula appears to be prominent,
triangular, and perhaps cranioventrally directed. The superficial surfaces
of coracoid face anteriorly. There are ossified uncinate processes.
The metacarpals are not fused to each other or to the semilunate carpal.
The semilunate carpal covers the proximal bases of metacarpals I, II, and
III. Metacarpal I is 10% or less the length of metacarpal II. Metacarpal
III is bowed posterolaterally. Manual phalanx I-1 is slightly bowed. Manual
ungual I is shorter than manual ungual II, and less curved. Manual
phalanges II-1 and II-2 are nearly subequal. Only III-3 and the ungual as
far as the phalanges go for manual digit III. Manual phalanx II-1 is
expanded transversely. The ulna is longer than the humerus. The humerus
appears to have a hatchet-shaped deltopectoral crest.
The astragalus and calcaneum are proximally fused to the tibia, but I
presume not to each other since they are referred to as separate elements?
The metatarsus is proximally fused to each other and to the distal tarsals.
The hallux is retroverted. Pedal ungual II is larger and more curved than
III. Pedal phalanx II-1 is shorter (~75%) than II-2. Pedal digit IV is
nearly as long as III and much longer than II. The distalmost phalanges are
the longest in all the digits. I cannot tell if pedal digit II is
hyperextendible. The tibia is longer than femur.
The tail is 5-7 times the length of the femur.
Figure 5 is the uhm... quote "sketchy cladogram of dinosaur-bird
phylogenetic relationship, showing that Shenzhouraptor sinensis Ji et al.
2002 and Jixiangornis orientalis gen. et sp. nov. from western Liaoning of
China are the oldest birds with a real ability of active flight in the
world." Here it is-
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