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Synapomorphies 1/1



I have made a webpage with the character matrix, character list,
stepmatrices and some comments, but I won't be able to upload it before
Monday. But currently I'm surfing through my log file, so I can at least
supply some synapomorphies for the clades that came out of my analysis.

When I excluded the taxa with 20 or fewer codings, one of the 199 MPTs of
the unweighted analysis was... (the trichotomy means that a branch length of
0 is involved)

+--allzero outgroup
`--Maniraptoriformes
    |--*Caudipteryx*
    `--Paraves (still don't like the name...)
        |--Scansoriopterygidae
        `--Avialae sensu Gauthier, 1986
            |--*Archaeopteryx*
            |--basal Troodontidae
            `--Eumaniraptora
                |--*Microraptor*
                `--"Orthavialae"
                    |--1--*Rahonavis*
                    |  `--*Shenzhouraptor*
                    `--"Euavialae"
                        |--*Yandangornis*
                        `--Avebrevicauda
                            |--*Sapeornis*
                            `--Pygostylia
                                |--*Confuciusornis*
                                `--2--*Jibeinia*
                                   `--Ornithothoraces
                                       |--Enantiornithes (see below)
                                       `--Euornithes (see below)

Enantiornithes
|--*Iberomesornis*
`--Euenantiornithes
    |--*Protopteryx*
    `--3--*Longipteryx*
       `--4--*Eoenantiornis*
          `--5--*Gobipteryx*
             `--6--*Eocathayornis*
                `--7--*Sinornis*
                   `--Avisauridae
                       |--*Concornis*
                       `--8--*Enantiornis*
                          `--9--*Eoalulavis*
                             `--10--*Cuspirostrisornis*
                                 `--*Neuquenornis*

Euornithes
|--*Patagopteryx*
`--11--*Yanornis*
    `--12--*Yixianornis*
        `--Ornithurae sensu medio
            |--*Apsaravis*
            `--Ornithurae sensu strictissimo
                |--*Anas*
                `--Odontognathae
                    |--*Hesperornis*
                    `--*Ichthyornis*

...and the synapomorphies (DELTRAN) on this tree are:

Format: Character state | consistency index | description

Maniraptoriformes
45(3) n/a Proximal end of mt III narrowed (subarctometatarsal condition)

Paraves
39(1) 0.333 Largest pedal claw on digit II
46(1) 0.500 Middle tail vertebrae at least twice as long as the proximal
ones
51(1) 0.250 Femoral neck absent

Avialae
9(1) 0.286 Prominent scapular acromion present and costolaterally not wider
than deep (ambiguous)
38(1) 0.250 Pedal digit II without the claw significantly shorter than IV
(should have quantified that...)
40(1) 0.500 Pedal digit II hyperextensible (scored as unknown for Archie)
61(1) 0.667 Ilia far apart and vertical over entire length (ambiguous)
62(1) 0.667 Pubic peduncle of ilium about 3 times as long craniocaudally as
the ischiadic one (measured at the base = dorsal end) (ambiguous)

Eumaniraptora
60(1) 0.500 Flange on phalanx II-1 (for attachment of remiges) present

"Orthavialae"
3(1) 0.500 Fibula does not reach calcaneum (reversed in *Sapeornis*, which I
don't trust)
37(1) 0.714 6 sacral vertebrae
45(0) n/a Proximal end of mt III not broadened, displaced plantarly or
narrowed (reversal to the plesiomorphy)

1
5(2) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a joint coracoid in scapula
53(1) 0.500 Preacetabular part of ilium twice as long as postacetabular
process

"Euavialae"
40(0) 0.500 Pedal digit II not hyperextensible
45(1) n/a Proximal end of mt III broadened
48(1) 1.000 Sterna fused
51(0) 0.250 Femoral neck present

Avebrevicauda
23(1) 0.500 Pygostyle present, short (coded as absent in *Yandangornis*)
37(2) 0.714 7 sacral vertebrae (ambiguous)
50(1) 0.500 Pubic symphysis less than 1/3 of pubic length (irreversible!)
(ambiguous)

Pygostylia
7(1) 0.333 Broad, deep fossa on dorsal side of coracoid (ambiguous)
16(1) 0.667 Coracoid with tiny cylindrical (better: narrow) part
20(1) 0.250 Distal end of humerus very compressed craniocaudally (probably
miscoded...)
23(2) 0.500 Pygostyle long
46(0) 0.500 Middle tail vertebrae not at least twice as long as the proximal
ones (ambiguous)
52(1) 1.000 Fewer than 10 caudal vertebrae (ambiguous)
54(1) 0.500 Bicipital scar on ulna developed as a tubercle
56(1) 0.500 Coracoid more than 1.75 times as long (glenoid to sternum) as
broad (maximal distance craniomedial to caudolateral margin) (ambiguous, but
why? *Sapeornis* has 0, *Confuciusornis* and *Jibeinia* have 1...  ~:-| )
62(0) 0.667 Pubic peduncle of ilium as long craniocaudally as the ischiadic
one (measured at the base = dorsal end)

2
15(1) 0.375 Manual digit III: 3 separate phalanges (irreversible!)
16(2) 0.667 Coracoid with a cylindrical part longer than 1/3 of the coracoid
37(3) 0.714 8 sacral vertebrae (reversed in *Protopteryx*)

Ornithothoraces
5(1) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a flat joint (ambiguous)
13(1) 0.500 Ossified sternal keel present, not reaching the cranial border
of the sternum (coded as polymorphic 0+1 in *Confuciusornis*)
15(2) 0.375 Manual digit III: 2 separate phalanges (irreversible!)

Enantiornithes
12(1) 0.500 Hypocleideum long
27(1) 1.000 Femoral posterior trochanter hypertrophied
30(1) 1.000 Trochlea of mt II much broader than the trochlea of mt III

Euenantiornithes
2(1) 1.000 Parapophyses located in central part of the bodies of dorsal
vertebrae
17(1) 1.000 Dorsal margin of humeral head concave in its central portion,
rising ventrally and dorsally (hard to code for me -- no good illustrations)
18(1) 0.250 Prominent bicipital crest on humerus, cranioventrally
projecting: present
24(1) Mc III projecting distally more than mc II (ambiguous)

3
5(2) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a joint coracoid in scapula
25(1) 0.250 Manual digit II: proximal phalanx longer than intermediate
phalanx (ambiguous, but don't ask me why, *Protopteryx* has 0, *Longipteryx*
has 1...)
34(1) 0.250 Mt V absent

4
11(1) 1.000 Dorsal and ventral margins of furcula: ventral margin clearly
wider than the dorsal margin
14(1) 0.333 Manual digit I +- reaches the end of mc II (0: reaches beyond,
2: is markedly shorter)
22(1) 1.000 Shaft of radius with a long longitudinal groove on its
caudoventral surface (ambiguous)

5
32(1) 1.000 Medial rim of the trochlea of mt III with a strong plantar
projection (ambiguous)

BTW... *Gobipteryx* has 5 autapomorphies, all unambigous. So let me suspect
some long-branch attraction.

6
19(1) 0.333 Ventral face of the humeral bicipital crest with a small fossa
for muscular attachment (ambiguous)

7
6(1) 0.500 Supracoracoid nerve foramen opening into an elongate furrow
medially and separated from the medial margin of the coracoid by a thick,
bony bar (ambiguous)
14(2) 0.333 Mc + manual digit I markedly shorter than mc II
15(3) 0.375 Manual digit III: 1 separate phalanx (really unknown in
*Gobipteryx*?)
31(1) 1.000 Mt IV significantly thinner than mt II & III (ambiguous)

Avisauridae
21(1) 1.000 Dorsal cotyla of ulna separated from the olecranon by a groove
(ambiguous)
28(1) 1.000 Caudal projection of the lateral border of the distal end of the
femur: present
35(1) 1.000 Strong transverse convexity of the dorsal surface of the
midshaft of mt III: present (ambiguous)
39(2) 0.333 Largest pedal claw on digit I (ambiguous; because *Gobipteryx*
is scored as unknown???)

8
10(1) 0.500 Costal surface of scapula with a prominent, longitudinal furrow
(ambiguous)
54(0) 0.500 Bicipital scar on ulna not developed as a tubercle

9
8(1) 0.333 Supracoracoid foramen opens inside the coracoidal fossa

10
13(2) 0.500 Ossified sternal keel reaching the cranial border of the sternum
or beyond it

Euornithes
5(3) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a shallow joint scapula in coracoid
26(1) 0.250 Pubic foot absent
37(4) 0.714 9 sacral vertebrae
41(1) 1.000 Distal fusion between mc II and III
42(2) 1.000 Distal fusion between mt II, III and IV ontogenetically before p
roximal fusion
61(2) 0.667 Ilia sigmoid, close together cranially* to the acetabulum and
far apart caudally (ambiguous)

* Is that correct English?

11
13(2) 0.500 Ossified sternal keel reaching the cranial border of the sternum
or beyond it (ambiguous)
15(3) 0.375 Manual digit III: 1 separate phalanx (ambiguous)
20(0) 0.250 Distal end of humerus not very compressed craniocaudally
23(1) 0.500 Pygostyle short (ambiguous)
25(1) 0.250 Manual digit II: proximal phalanx longer than intermediate
phalanx (ambiguous)
39(0) 0.333 Largest pedal claw on digit III (ambiguous)
45(2) n/a Proximal end of mt III displaced plantarly
49(1) 0.333 Procoracoid process present

12
14(1) 0.333 Manual digit I +- reaches the end of mc II
47(1) 1.000 Extensor process on mc I present

Ornithurae sensu medio
4(1) 1.000 Humeral head globose (ambiguous)
37(5) 0.714 10 or more sacral vertebrae
38(0) 0.250 Pedal digit II without the claw not significantly shorter than
digit IV
43(1) 1.000 Patella(r groove on femur) (ambiguous)
44(1) 0.500 Hypotarsus present (ambiguous)
50(2) 0.500 Pubic symphysis absent

*Apsaravis* has 6 unambiguous and 2 ambiguous autapomorphies... wow. No
wonder *Liaoningornis* and *Songlingornis* like to cluster with it.

Ornithurae sensu strictissimo
1(1) 0.200 Premaxillary teeth absent (ambiguous)
5(4) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a deep joint scapula in coracoid
7(0) 0.333 Broad, deep fossa on the dorsal side of the coracoid: absent
14(2) 0.333 Mc + manual digit I markedly shorter than mc II (ambiguous)
34(1) 0.250 Mt V absent (ambiguous)
57(1) 1.000 Articular pneumaticity present (ambiguous)
58(1) 1.000 Intercotylar eminence present
59(1) 1.000 Fossa for mt I on distal plantar surface of mt II present
(ambiguous)

Odontognathae
9(0) Prominent scapular acromion absent

Tomorrow (it's 10 to 11 pm) I'll present an equally MPT which contains the
following clade, basalmost in the ingroup...

+--*Caudipteryx*
`--+--*Archaeopteryx*
   `--+--Scansoriopterygidae
      `--+--basal Troodontidae
         `--+--*Microraptor*
            `--+--*Rahonavis*
               `--*Shenzhouraptor*

:-)