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Synapomorphies 2/2 (not 2/1...)



As promised, here's another tree, equally parsimonious as yesterday's, from
the same analysis (taxa with 20 or fewer codings excluded):

(like yesterday)
length = 173 steps
CI = 0.4798
HI = 0.5491
RI = 0.7982
RC = 0.3830

+--allzero outgroup
`--Eumaniraptora, Avialae, "Orthavialae", what have you
    |--1--*Caudipteryx*
    |  `--"dromaeo-avemorphs"
    |      |--*Archaeopteryx*
    |      `--2--Scansoriopterygidae
    |         `--Deinonychosauria sensu Sereno (?)
    |             |--basal Troodontidae
    |             `--Dromaeosauridae sensu Sereno
    |                 |--*Microraptor*
    |                 `--3--*Rahonavis*
    |                    `--*Shenzhouraptor*
    `--4--*Sapeornis*
       `--"Euavialae"
           |--*Yandangornis*
           `--Pygostylia
               |--*Confuciusornis*
               `--5--*Jibeinia*
                  `--Ornithothoraces
                      |--Euornithes like yesterday
                      `--Enantiornithes
                          |--*Iberomesornis*
                          `--Euenantiornithes
                              |--*Protopteryx*
                              `--6--*Longipteryx*
                                 `--7--8--*Eocathayornis*
                                    |  `--9--*Gobipteryx*
                                    |     `--*Eoenantiornis*
                                    `--10--*Sinornis*
                                        `--Avisauridae like yesterday

Synapomorphies:

Eumaniraptora
38(1) 0.200 Pedal digit II without the claw significantly shorter than IV
61(1) 0.667 Ilia far apart and vertical over entire length

1
45(3) n/a Proximal end of mt III narrowed (subarctometatarsal condition)

"dromaeo-avemorphs"
9(1) 0.333 Prominent scapular acromion present, costolaterally not wider
than deep
46(1) 1.000 Middle tail vertebrae at least twice as long as the proximal
ones
51(1) 0.333 Femoral neck absent
62(1) 0.667 Pubic peduncle of ilium about 3 times as long craniocaudally as
the ischiadic one (measured at the base = dorsal end)

2
39(1) 0.333 Largest pedal claw on digit II

Deinonychosauria sensu Sereno
40(1) 1.000 Pedal digit II hyperextensible (scored as unknown in Archie)

Dromaeosauridae sensu Sereno
60(1) 0.333 Flange on phalanx II-1 (for attachment of remiges) present

3
3(1) 0.500 Fibula does not reach calcaneum
5(2) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a joint coracoid in scapula
37(1) 0.625 6 sacral vertebrae
45(0) n/a Proximal end of mt III not broadened, displaced plantarly or
narrowed
53(1) 0.500 Preacetabular process of ilium twice as long as postacetabular
process

4
37(2) 0.625 7 sacral vertebrae
45(1) n/a Proximal end of mt III broadened
50(1) 0.500 Pubic symphysis less than 1/3 of pubic length
60(1) 0.333 Flange on phalanx II-1 (for attachment of remiges) present

"Euavialae"
3(1) 0.500 Fibula does not reach calcaneum
48(1) 1.000 Sterna fused (ambiguous)

Pygostylia
7(1) 0.333 Broad, deep fossa on dorsal side of coracoid present (ambiguous)
16(1) 0.667 Coracoid with a tiny cylindrical (better: narrow) part
(ambiguous)
20(1) 0.250 Distal end of humerus very compressed craniocaudally
23(2) 0.400 Pygostyle present and long (coded as absent in *Yandangornis*)
52(1) 1.000 Fewer than 10 free caudal vertebrae (coded as unkown in
*Sapeornis*)
54(1) 0.500 Bicipital scar on ulna developed as a tubercle (ambiguous)
56(1) 0.500 Coracoid more than 1.75 times as long (glenoid to sternum) as
broad (maximal distance craniomedial to caudolateral margin)

5
9(1) 0.333 Prominent scapular acromion present
15(1) 0.375 Manual digit III with 3 separate phalanges
16(2) 0.667 Coracoid with a cylindrical part longer than 1/3 of the coracoid
37(3) 0.625 8 sacral vertebrae
55(1) 0.333 Ventral tubercle of humerus present

Ornithothoraces
5(1) 0.800 Scapula and coracoid forming a flat joint (ambiguous)
13(1) 0.500 Ossified sternal keel present but not reaching the cranial
border of the sternum
15(2) 0.375 Manual digit III with 2 separate phalanges

Enantiornithes, Euenantiornithes, and node 6: like yesterday

7
11(1) 1.000 Dorsal and ventral margins of the furcula: ventral margin
clearly wider than the dorsal margin
14(1) 0.333 Manual digit I +- reaches the end of mc II
19(1) 0.333 Ventral face of the humeral bicipital crest with a small fossa
for muscular attachment (ambiguous)
22(1) 1.000 Shaft of radius with a long longitudinal groove on its
caudoventral surface (ambiguous)
32(1) 1.000 Medial rim of the trochlea of mt III with a strong plantar
projection (ambiguous)

8
not listed?!?

9
not listed either?!?

10
6(1) 0.500 Supracoracoid nerve foramen opening into an elongate furrow
medially and separated from the medial margin of the coracoid by a thick,
bony bar (ambiguous)
14(2) 0.333 Mc + manual digit I markedly shorter than mc II
15(3) 0.375 Manual digit III: 1 separate phalanx
31(1) 1.000 Mt IV significantly thinner than mt II & III

Avisauridae and everything inside like yesterday

Here is another arrangement of Euenantiornithes, from another equally MPT:

+--*Protopteryx*
`--+--*Longipteryx*
   `--1--*Eocathayornis*
      |--*Eoenantiornis*
      `--2--*Eoalulavis*
         `--3--*Gobipteryx*
            `--4--*Sinornis*
               `--Avisauridae
                   |--5--*Concornis*
                   |  `--*Enantiornis*
                   `--6--*Cuspirostrisornis*
                      `--*Neuquenornis*

1
11(1) 1.000 Dorsal and ventral margins of the furcula: ventral margin
clearly wider than the dorsal margin
14(1) 0.333 Manual digit I +- reaches the end of mc II
19(1) 0.333 Ventral face of the humeral bicipital crest with a small fossa
for muscular attachment (ambiguous)
22(1) 1.000 Shaft of radius with a long longitudinal groove on its
caudoventral surface (ambiguous)

2
6(1) 0.500 Supracoracoid nerve foramen opening into an elongate furrow
medially and separated from the medial margin of the coracoid by a thick,
bony bar (ambiguous)
14(2) 0.333 Mc + manual digit I markedly shorter than mc II
15(3) 0.375 Manual digit III: 1 separate phalanx

3
8(1) 0.333 Supracoracoid foramen opens inside the coracoidal fossa
32(1) 1.000 Medial rim of the trochlea of mt III with a strong plantar
projection (ambiguous)

(*Gobipteryx* has 5 unambiguous autapomorphies)

4
31(1) 1.000 Mt IV significantly thinner than mt II & III

Avisauridae
10(1) 0.500 Costal surface of scapula with a prominent, longitudinal furrow
28(1) 1.000 Caudal projection of the lateral border of the distal end of the
femur: present
35(1) 1.000 Strong transverse convexity of the dorsal surface of the
midshaft of mt III: present (ambiguous)
39(2) 0.333 Largest pedal claw on digit I (ambiguous)

5
9(2) 0.400 Prominent scapular acromion, costolaterally wider than deep
21(1) 1.000 Dorsal cotyla of ulna separated from the olecranon by a groove
(ambiguous)

6
13(2) 0.500 Ossified sternal keel reaching the cranial border of the sternum
or beyond it