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Re: AFROTHERIA, CROWS & SPECIES CONCEPTS



Jaime A. Headden <qilongia@yahoo.com> wrote:

  Cela-Conde, C.J. & Ayala, F.J. 2003. Genera of the human lineage.
_Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia_ 100 (13):
7684-7689.

The article contains a few intriguing statements:

"But a mixture of primitive and derived characters poses a problem. The phylogenetic definition of a certain taxon will depend on whether we emphasize the primitive features or the derived features." Hmmm... I think they mean 'diagnosis' rather than 'definition'.

By "mixture of primitive and derived characters" Cela-Conde and Ayala (2003) are referring to the mosaic nature of early hominid evolution, especially with respect to dentition and bipedality. I see parallels in the early history of Aves, with the apparent mosaic nature of non-avian + avian characters in the first birds.

"Three studies concluded that _Homo_ is monophyletic (i.e., holophyletic), whereas the remaining three suggested that it is paraphyletic." The context suggests that they might mean 'polyphyletic'.

Anyways, here's their taxonomic scheme:

Family Hominidae Gray, 1825. Miocene to the present, worldwide.
Genus Sahelanthropus Brunet et al., 2002, incertae sedis. Miocene, Central Africa.
Species Sahelanthropus tchadensis Brunet et al., 2002. Miocene, Central Africa.


Subfamily Praeanthropinae Cela-Conde and Altaba, 2002. Miocene-Pliocene, Africa.
Genus Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955 (includes Orrorin Senut et al., 2001). Miocene-Pliocene, Africa.
Species Praeanthropus tugenensis Senut et al., 2001. Miocene, East Africa.
Species Praeanthropus africanus Weinert, 1950 (= Australopithecus afarensis Johanson et al. 1978). Pliocene, East Africa.
Species Praeanthropus bahrelghazali Brunet et al., 1996. Pliocene, Subsahara.
Species Praeanthropus anamensis M. G. Leakey et al., 1995. Pliocene, East Africa.
Species Praeanthropus garhi Asfaw et al., 1999. Pliocene, East Africa.
Genus Ardipithecus White et al., 1995. Miocene-Pliocene, East Africa.
Species Ardipithecus ramidus White et al., 1994. Miocene-Pliocene, East Africa.


Subfamily Australopithecinae Gregory and Hellman, 1939. Pliocene, Africa.
Genus Australopithecus Dart 1925 (includes Plesianthropus Broom, 1938; Paranthropus Broom, 1938; Zinjanthropus L. S. B. Leakey, 1959; and Paraustralopithecus Arambourg and Coppens, 1967). Pliocene, Africa.
Species Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925. Pliocene, Africa.
Species Australopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg and Coppens, 1968. Pliocene, East Africa.
Species Australopithecus boisei L. S. B. Leakey, 1959. Pliocene-Pleistocene, East Africa.
Species Australopithecus robustus Broom, 1938. Pleistocene, southern Africa.


Subfamily Homininae Gray, 1825. Pliocene to the present, worldwide.
Genus Homo Linnaeus, 1758 (includes Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894; Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895; Sinanthropus Black, 1927; Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928; Africanthropus Dreyer, 1935; Telanthropus Broom and Robinson, 1949; Atlanthropus Arambourg, 1954; Tchadanthropus Coppens, 1965; and Kenyanthropus M. G. Leakey et al., 2001). Pliocene to the present, worldwide.
Species Homo platyops M. G. Leakey et al., 2001. Pliocene, East Africa.
Species Homo rudolfensis Alexeev, 1986. Pliocene, Africa.
Species Homo habilis L. S. B. Leakey et al., 1964. Pliocene, Africa.
Species Homo ergaster Groves and Mazák, 1975. Plio-Pleistocene, Africa and ? Eurasia.
Species Homo erectus Dubois, 1892. Pleistocene, Africa and Eurasia.
Species Homo antecessor Bermúdez de Castro et al., 1997. Plio-Pleistocene, Europe and ? Africa.
Species Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908. Pleistocene, Africa and Eurasia.
Species Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864. Pleistocene, western Eurasia.
Species Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758. Pleistocene to the present, worldwide [and occasionally beyond - TW].


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