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Re: Coelurosaurian Analysis Matrix & Character List!!

Steven Mahon wrote-

> If I didnt know
> something had something, I "assumed" it was a no. Next
> time I'll make sure the info is more accurate

Needless to say, that's a bad practice.

> For
> > instance, Allosaurus is coded as "0" for all the
> > characters, but has at
> > least 26, 33, 53, 64, 87, 88, 89, 91, 95, 126, 127,
> > 129, 131, 153, 157, 169,
> > 180, 221, 223, 225, 227, 246 and 247.
> Since that's my outgroup, does it really matter, if I
> fill it in correctly?

Oh yes it does.  The outgroup's codings will help determine the polarity of
characters, deciding which state is primitive for the taxon you're analyzing
(coelurosaurs in this case).  If this wasn't the case, everyone would just
use an all zero outgroup.

>  Many
> > characters are nonsensical, many
> > more are repeated.
> Oh really? I thought I had deleted the repeated ones
> before I had started.. whixh ones?

Here's all your characters, organized by anatomical region.  Those grouped
together are identical, different states of the same character, or otherwise
correlated.  Those with ?'s in front I don't understand, those with *'s in
front need quantification, those with !'s in front have other problems.

*212.head unusually small

*96a.long, low skull

*176.enlarged premaxilla

17.dorsal premaxillary process dorsoventrally flattened
37.peculiarly flattened internarial bar

27.subnarial foramen absent

?113.temporal fossa of premaxilla elongated, articulation slopes

71.second premaxilla largest

124.D-shaped premaxillary tooth
188.premaxillary teeth incisor-like w/ both carinae of each tooth being
placed along the same plane perpindicular to the main axis of the skull

!148.unserrated premaxillary teeth but serrated

240.posterior section of premaxilla toothless

156.the premaxillary tomial edge is crenellate

!179.nares at tip of snout between premaxilla & nasal

*72.external nares enlarged
163.the caudal margin of the external naris is caudal to the rostral margin
of the antorbital fenestra
239.external nariss longer than antorbital fenestra

*83.elevated external nares
162.the dorsal margin of the external naris is dorsal to the dorsal margin
of the antorbital fenestra

9.maxilla broadly contacts naris
87.infranarial process of premaxilla contacts nasal
112.infranarial process of premaxilla elongated,
177.premaxilla w/ long posterior process seperating maxilla from nasal

*180a.elongated antorbital fenestra fossa

180b.antorbital fenestra fossa w/ 2-3 fenestrae
169.3rd antorbital fenestra

*2.enlarged elongate maxillary fenatra

48.endentulous maxilla (tooth from premaxilla or
82b.generally edentulous beaks
213.anterior jaws toothless & form bill structure

195.secondary palate formed from premaxilla & maxilla

*82a.abbreviated beaks
*90.long beaks
*93.short beaks
*178.long shallow snout formed dorsally by elongated nasal

10.nasals narrow caudally

133.pits (warts) on nasals

63b.T-shaped lacrimal

18.orbital flange on prefrontal

81.pneumatic cassowary-like creat present

139.jugal on rim of antorbital fenestra

42.no postorbital-jugal contact

!73.jugal embraces lateral temporal fenestra ventrally

185.squasmosal w/ pneumatic recess

43.no quadratojugal-squasmosal contact

126.quadratojugal, squasmosal protrude into lateral temporal fenestra

*186.lower temporal fenestra reduced

63a. Y-shaped quadratojugal

?114.quadrotojugal covers or nearly covers lower part of lateral temporal

?101.orbits anteromedially inclined

*181.very large orbit

96b.skull arched behind the orbits
183.braincase & overlying frontals are strongly domed, sloping forward
smoothly on the frontals & nasals, & back sharply on parietals

165.the pareitals are longer than frontals
*184.postorbital skull short

102.sharp saggital crest

155.supratemporal fenestrae elongated craniocaudally, longer than wide by
200% or so

187.quadrate slopes anteroventrally, lower jaw is offset anteriorly &
articulates below the orbit

125.diamond-shaped vomer

237.ectopterygoid lateral to palatine

7.lateral depression in braincase

54.tympanic recess opens within columellar recess (not
paroccipital process)

168.separate exit for the cranial nerve V

16.inflated parasphenoid
97.bulbous parasphenoid
?182.bone capsule of unknown function at base of braincase

!215a.braincase pneumatized

15.no basisphenoid recess

238.reduced basipterygoid processes

157.the paroccipital processes are pendent in lateral & posterior view,
depending to about half the distance between the base & the ventral edge of
the quadrate/articular

84.dentary symphasis fused

241.dentary symphsis decurved

242.dentary symphsis deflected medially

3.dentary dentaryfornina inside lateral groove

158.the mecklian groove is shallow, rather than deeply incised into the

!85a.dentary bifurcates posteriorly

?164.the dorsoposterior surrangular process is as long as high or longer

*85b.large external mandibular fenestrum
160.the external mandibular fenestra height is more than 300% of the total
mandibular height
161.the external mandibular fenestra length is more than 300% of the total
mandibular length

159.the surrangular bears a short triangular process that invades the
external mandibular fenestra from the top& rear

86.tongue-in-groove sliding jaw articulation

38.extension of dentary tooth row behind that of

74b.teeth become larger anteriorly
103b.maxilla & dentary teeth alveoli increase size posteriorly

19.maxillary & dentary teeth implanted in groove
39.alveoli w/ incomplete septa

14.inter dental plates absent

*11.numerous teeth
!74a.about 40 teeth
*103a.large # of maxilla & dentary teeth
*214a.teeth small

104a.teeth w/ constriction between root & crown

214b.teeth slightly flattened & bulbuos

1.most distal posterior serration forming tip of tooth

*70.dental serrations front much smaller than in back

*12.enlarged serrations
55.teeth w/ unserrated crowns
*104b.teeth w/  large denticles
189.teeth, where present lack serrations

13.teeth w/ blood grooves

104c.teeth w/ curved denticles

!88.presacrals contain pleurocoels
99.no pleurocoels on dorsal vertebrae
!215b. vertebrae pneumatized
*217b.cervicals highly pneumatizedd
243.2 pairs of cervical pleurocoels

*175a.w/ long neck
*216.neck long
*217a.cervicals elongate

*64.neural spines of neck vertebrae large & erect
*98.elongate cervicals w/ low neural spines

28.cervical epipophyses not overhanging the

140.cervical zygapophyses flexed longitudinally

*170.elongated anterior cervical zygapophyses

*217.cervicals w/ widely-spaced zygapophyses

245.cervical prezygapophyses seperated by a U-shaped space

244.ventral sulcus on cervical centra flanked by ventrolaterally

*49.prominent hypophyses on cervicodorsals
89.cervicodorsals have hypophyses

29.posterior dorsal neural spines lower than long
*192.dorsals w/ taller spines

?75.dorsal neural arches elevated anteriorly

*218.anterior dorsal vertebrae w/ tall neural arches

*44.wide neural canal in dorsals

150.fan-shaped dorsal neural spines

229.dorsal ribs flat & broad

105.6 sacral vertebrae
190a.vertebrae 10+13+5-6+<40

58.sacrals procoelous

59.posterior synsacrals compresses, vental keel

56.caudal count less than 25-26
*175b.w/ long tail
190b.vertebrae 10+13+5-6+<40
*220.tail somewhat short, anteriorly massive

147.15 or less caudals w/ transverse processes

?193.caudals have transverse processes proximally which apparently retrovert

62.flexible (procoelous) tail

*57.short, reduced caudal zygapophyses
66.tendon-like extensions of tail zygapophyses,

*191b.caudals w/ low spines

106.distal caudals w/ narrow groove instead of spine

*191a.caudals moderately elongated

246.caudal vertebrae decrease in length posteriorly

?191c.caudals w/ short ribs fused to centra

!221.scapula strap-like

35.laterally facing glenoid

*115.shallow lunate coracoid

*194a.large pectoral girdle w/ especially large coracoid
*222.large coracoid

!194b. coracoid bearing posteroventral process

*194c.coracoid bearing large tubercle for biceps

!33.presence of furcula
*107.clavicles distinct & small
!116.lacks furcula
!127.furcula present
!196.clavicles unknown & girdle may be mobile

36.L-shaped coracoid that attaches to anterior surface
of sternal apparatus

34.sternal plates w/ attached & ossified sternal ribs

67.paired sternal plates

50a.sternum rectangular longitudinally

50b.sternum w/ ossified keel

*117.elongated forelimbs
172.length of forelimb 75% of presacral spine

*197c.gracile humerus
*223.humerus massive w/ expanded ends in some species

197b.straight humerus

*118.reduced deltopectoral crest on humerus
*197b.humerus w/ reduced deltopectoral crest
*224.conspicuous, sharply peaked deltopectoral crest posteromedially on

?134.radius-ulna not supinators

198.ulna & radius adhere distally

144.ulna w/ a curved shaft
173.ulna bowed posteriorly

!51.distal carpals fused w/ metacarpals

!108.lunate carpal
!174.semilunate carpal, which permits hand to flex both laterally &
!199.carpals flat, reduced & perhaps could not flex
!200.semilunate carpal block reduced or absent

*201.long hand
*225a.manus large

23.metacarpal-phalangeal joint of digit 1 w/
approximately 15 degrees maximum extension

25.metacarpals w/ 60-70% of shafts in contact
*40.metacarpals I-III w/ extension shaft-to-shaft

26.metacarpal I at least 60% the length of metacarpal
141.metacarpal I 1/3 or less of metacarpal II
!202a.metacarpals equal length

!128.manus II reduced to metacarpal

91.manus digitII longer than III
94b.manus digits II & III subequal length
119a.manual digits subequal in length
!203.digits equal length

*142a.metacarpal III long
!202b.metacarpals equal length

*94a.manus digits II & III robust
119b.manual digits subequal in development

24.metacarpal III at least 75% the width of metacarpal
*142b.metacarpal III slender
*146a.thin metacarpal III

146b.bowed metacarpal III

?92.manual digit II more gracile

20.flexor depression proximal to distal condyles on
proximal manual phalanges

!149.powerful manus I-1

21.paired flexor processes on manual phalanx I-1

22.dorsolateral tubercle on manual phalanx I-1

60.stout ungual I, quadrangular posteriorly

*225b.manus bearing long claws

*76.manual unguals flatsided & deep

204a.unguals straight

204b.unguals w/ weak flexor tubercles

*226.very broad pelvis

41.iliac blades meet in the mid-line
227.ilia widely seperated

77.antdorsal rim of ilium everted
*28.ilia very deep above acetabulum & flare laterally

143.posterodorsal arc of of ilium curves posteroventrally

*229.post-acetabulur ilia are short w/ unique knob-like protrubences

229.post-acetabulur ilia w/ unique knob-like protrubences

52.pelvis w/ prominent antitrochanter

61.pubic peduncle of ilium slender

*30.opisthopubic pubis
*68.pubis faces down & backward to parallel ischium
*78b.ventral pelvic elements rotated posteriorly
*205a.strongly propubic
*230.pubes retroverted

!78.ventral pelvic elements strap like

?31.large pubic apron

205b.pubes fused

*129.large pubic foot

*151.limited anterior expansion of pubic foot
247.pubic foot expanded anteriorly

206.semicircular scar on posterior face of ischium

167a.the lateral aspect of the ischium is broadly C-shaped

53.ischium greater than 2/3 length of pubis
*130a.long ischium
135.ischium short 2/3 or less length of pubis
*211.long ischium

32.ischia that do not fuse into a symphasis
45.no contact between distal ends of ischia
*145b.ischium w/ a reduced distal symphysis

137.triangular obturator process on ischium
153.trapezoidal obturator process on ischium

*152.prominent obturator process of ischium

*145a.ischium w/ a broad obturator notch
!167b.ischium w/ the obturator process at about 1/2 its length

130b.pointed ischium
136.loss of ischial foot
171.ischium ends in point

138.reduced femoral 4th trochanter
166.the 4th trochanter is absent, replaced either by a notch or a fossa

*100.elongate tibia
*207.tibia elongate
!231.tibia 80% length of femur

46.fibular tubercle for M. iliofib. projects laterally
131.tuberosity on anterior proximal end of fibula

47.no medial fossa on proximal end fibula

*109.shaft of fibula exteremely narrow
*232.fibula slender & appressed to tibia

8.fibula reduced to splint

4.calcaneum fused

*79a.metatarsus short
*122a.long metatarsus
!208.metatarsus elongated to ~80% length of tibia
233.short metatarsus (<1/3 length of tibia)
*234a.broad, short feet

*219.short, stout pedal digits
*234b.broad, short feet

79b.secondary contact between metatarsal I & ankle
234c.4-toed feet
236.proximal end of 1st metatarsus reaches tarsus

120.metatarsal I & phalanx lost

80.pes I ungual largest

110a.metatarsals w/ compressed II

69a.distal articulation of metatarsal II

!111.modified raptorial digit
!154.raptorial pes

*95.proximal metatarsal III broad
*110b.metatarsals w/ strongly pinched III
121.metatarsal III proximal, excluded from extensor surface
*132.strongly consticted metatarsal III

69b.distal articulation of metatarsal III

5.tongue-like extension of articular surface metatarsal III

6.metatarsal IV most robust in pes
*110c.metatarsals w/  robust IV

*122b.short phalanges of digit IV

!210.pes V absent

123.hooved pedal unguals
235a.foot claws (unguals) pointed & compressed

?235b.foot claws (unguals) curved laterally

Mickey Mortimer