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No frills look at ceratopsids



This is very heartening to read.  The intraspecific combat idea was 
imaginative extrapolation; wouldn't defence from towering 
carnivores be the obvious reason to have a neck-protecting frill? 
Likewise,  the lethal structure & positioning of the horns would 
parsimoniously only be necessary for inflicting mortal injury.

Peter Markmann


----- Original Message -----
From: "Andrew A. Farke" <andyfarke@hotmail.com>
> Such skull
> roof contact was impossible in some chasmosaurine taxa, such 
as 
> Triceratops,due to near-vertical postorbital horn orientation, the 
> presence of a nasal
> horn or boss, and limitations in skull mobility. Also, this horn 
> orientationwould have made frontal charges and head butting 
(as in 
> Bison or Capra)
> nearly impossible to execute without great risk of injury.