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Let's count 2
Energy density of an A-(H-) Bomb vs. extraterestrial object

I want to answer to Mr Marjanovic . He wrote (> sign my earlier letter):

'>  The very fine powder form (so called Ir-soot) can produce IrO2 at
> atmospheric pressure and medium high temperature but it isn't found in the
> nature. The common form of Ir can oxidize in pure oxigen atmosphere and
> high temperature and pressure only.

But we are not talking about Ir-soot, not about atmospheric pressure, and
not about medium high temperature. We are talking about an explosion several
orders of magnitude BIGGER than if ALL the world's nuclear weapons at the
height of the Cold War would have exploded on the same spot. Depending on
how you measure, the Chicxulub crater is up to 300 km in diameter.

Thus, we are talking about a fireball, about plasma with one Ir atom in
every, whatever, cubic meter. Certainly some Ir oxides and chlorides will
precipitate out of this plasma when it cools down.

> The so called hydrogen-chloro-iridiumate can produce from
> sodium-chloro-iridiumate what can produce from Ir and NaCl in chlor
> atmosphere at high temperature. This combination isn't in the nature.

But in the fireball that results from a _gigantic_ impact into a shallow

> And where is potassium nitrate in the atmosphere?

Why in the atmosphere? Nitrate is everywhere else, in seawater, in soils...
*Escherichia coli* in your gut breathes nitrate if it has no more oxygen.'


Ir and NaCl in solid form and pure Cl2 atmosphere together isn't in any
fireball or sea.

Melted KNO3 isn't in the nature and for the oxidation of Ir (exclude
Ir-soot) must this form.


The energy of the first A-Bomb was equal 50,000 t TNT (tri-nitro-toluol).
TNT can produce 1 Kcal/g or 1 million Kcal/t heat. This A-Bomb produced 
5*10e4*10e6 = 5*10e10 Kcal = 2*10e11 KJoule
(where e - exponent).
 The volume of the source of nuclear energy was around 100 cm3.
The density of the energy was 2*10e15 KJoule/m3

The energy of the extraterestrial object is
E = m*ve2/2
m = s*V
where m - mass, e- exponent, v - velocity, s - specific gravity, V - volume.

If we want to count the density of the energy then 
V = 1 m3
s = 2 g/cm3 = 2,000 kg/m3
v = 5,000 m/s
E = 2*10e3*25*10e6/2 = 2.5*10e6  KJoule/m3

The density of the energy of the first A-Bomb was around 1 billion times
bigger than the density of energy of the extraterestrial object. According
this fact the temperature in the fireball produced an A-Bomb is much, much
more higher than the temperature of the surface of the object. (And the
temperature of H-Bomb is much, much more higher than A-Bomb!)

But not only this is different. The process of the explosion of an A-Bomb
is produce from the nuclear energy first heat and from the heat produce
other type of energy. The collision produce first different form of
mechanical energy (deformation, cracking) and the remaind part of energy
will be heat and from the heat will take off chemical reactions. This cause
a smaller temperature, too.

Summerized this: The collision don't produce a fireball, a plasma with
10,000 centigrades or same. The real temperature will be much, much more less.

Endre Simonyi