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Re: bird flight

There is no one size fits all model for bird flight.  Or for insect, pterosaur, 
or bat flight for that matter.  Different species and different individuals are 
as equally interesting for their differences as for their similarities.  Models 
that incorporate spanwise strip models that are articulable at each joint and 
also include unit twist provisions throughout the wingbeat allow relatively 
easy incorporation of the differences. Also, it is not unusual for the wing 
structure to be slightly asymmetric between the right and left sides.

Ken Carpenter wrote:

> .... I note that the wing tips of various birds do not move in the exact same 
> pattern (I use wing tip simply because it is an easy reference point to trace 
> bird wing movement). Although closely related birds have similar wing tip 
> movement patterns, more distantly related birds don't. This got me wondering 
> if the "one-size-fits-all" model of bird flight is correct.