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Re: How are columbiformes (doves and pigeons) related to psittaciformes?
Dora Smith wrote-
+AD4- I have come across several tables of bird phylogeny that state that
+AD4- psittaciformes (parrots) and columbiformes (doves and pigeons) are closely
+AD4- related - and placed in various diverse locations in the phylogenetic
Not believed to be true anymore. Mayr and Clarke (2003) found
psittaciformes to be closest to coliids, then coraciids. Columbids were
most closely related to pteroclids. Mayr (2002) noted similarities between
basal parrots (pseudasturids) and strigiformes. Mayr et al. (2003) found
psittaciformes to be closely related to a Coliidae +- Piciformes clade.
Columbiformes were not included in their analysis. Livezey and Zusi (2001)
found psittaciformes to be closest to some coraciiformes, while columbids
were next to pteroclids.
+AD4- Explanations of this idea are so vague they do not even tell me if the
+AD4- evidence is genetic or morphological.
+AD4- What can anyone tell me about what reason there is to believe
+AD4- and columbiformes are closely related, and can anyone suggest some good
+AD4- sources on that subject.
Mayr (2002) wrote- +ACI-Whereas some authors considered a close relationship
between Psittaciformes and either Cuculiformes (e.g. Gadow, 1893) or
Columbiformes (pigeons and doves) (e.g. Mayr +ACY- Amadon, 1951+ADs- Feduccia,
1996), more recent studies resulted in sister
group relationship between the Psittaciformes and a cluster of several
recent taxa (e.g. Sibley +ACY- Ahlquist,1990+ADs- Livezey +ACY- Zusi, 2001
+IBM- the former
reference also gives a survey on the history of the classification of
The Pseudasturidae are distinguished from other psittaciform birds in the
morphology of several skeletal elements and it may be assumed that the
Eocene taxon lacks many of the highly derived features, which obscure the
relationships of extant Psittaciformes. Almost certainly, for example, the
derived similarities between the humerus of extant parrots and pigeons (e.g.
Stegmann, 1964) are due to convergence, as both the Pseudasturidae and the
Eocene psittaciform birds described by Mayr +ACY- Daniels (1998) exhibit a
different, presumably more primitive, humeral morphology.
Of course, the remotely parrot-like beak of the toothbilled pigeon,
Didunculus strigirostris, also does not support a close relationship between
Psittaciformes and Columbiformes as assumed by Feduccia (1980), because
other pigeons as well as the Pseudasturidae and other basal psittaciform
birds (see Mayr +ACY- Daniels, 1998) lack a parrot-like beak.+ACI-