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The Dinosauria 2nd Ed. - Phylogenetic Taxonomy



One of the great things about this book is the emphasis on cladistics and
phylogenetic taxonomy.  Each taxonomic chapter provides phylogenetic
definitions, some of which are new.  This is generally done better in the
saurischian chapters, and is best in the theropod chapters.  The latter have
many clades with species-level specifiers.  A list of explicit definitions
follows, and does not include more generalized statements such as "clade x
contains taxa y and z", for instance.  Citations in parentheses are those
given by the authors, though one should note not all are accurate, and most
which lack citations are not original.

Benton
Dinosauria (Triceratops + Neornithes)
Saurischia (birds <- Ornithischia) (Gauthier, 1986)
Ornithischia (Triceratops <- Neornithes) (Sereno, 1998)

Holtz and Osmolska
Saurischia (Tyrannosaurus <- Triceratops)
Sauropodomorpha (Saltasaurus <- Theropoda) (Galton and Upchurch, this vol.)
Theropoda (Passer domesticus <- Cetiosaurus oxoniensis) (emend. Padian and
May, 1993)
Maniraptoriformes (Ornithomimus velox + Passer domesticus)
Maniraptora (Passer domesticus <- Ornithomimus velox)
Paraves (Passer domesticus <- Oviraptor philoceratops)
Eumaniraptora (Deinonychus antirhoppus + Passer domesticus)
Deinonychosauria (Deinonychus antirhoppus <- Passer domesticus) (Padian et
al., 1999)
Deinonychosauria (Dromaeosaurus albertensis + Troodon formosus) (Sereno,
1998)
- This definition of Saurischia is new, though inferior to (Megalosaurus
bucklandi <- Iguanodon bernissartensis) in my opinion.  The authors have no
preference for which version of Deinonychosauria is used.  Sereno's is
invalid since it does not include Deinonychus as a specifier.

Langer
Saurischia (Allosaurus <- Stegosaurus)
Herrerasauridae (Herrerasaurus + Staurikosaurus) (Novas, 1992)
Herrerasauria (Herrerasaurus <- Liliensternus, Plateosaurus)
Eusaurischia (Cetiosaurus + Neornithes) (Padian et al., 1999)
- This is the first time Herrerasauria has been defined.

Tykoski and Rowe
Ceratosauria (Ceratosaurus nasicornis <- birds) (Rowe, 1989)
Coelophysoidea (Coelophysis <- Ceratosaurus) (Holtz, 1994)
Coelophysidae (Coelophysis + Syntarsus) (Holtz, 1994)
Neoceratosauria (Ceratosaurus <- Coelophysis) (Holtz, 1994, 1998)
Abelisauroidea (Carnotaurus sastrei <- Ceratosaurus nasicornis) (Holtz,
1994, 1998; Padian et al., 1999)
Abelisauria (Noasaurus + Carnotaurus) (some)
Abelisauridae (Abelisaurus comahuensis + Carnotaurus sastrei) (Holtz, 1998;
Sereno, 1998; Padian et al., 1999)
Carnotaurinae (Carnotaurus <- Abelisaurus) (Sereno, 1998)
Abelisaurinae (Abelisaurus <- Carnotaurus) (Sereno, 1998)
- The definitions of Abelisauroidea and Abelisauria are invalid, as
Abelisaurus needs to be a specifier.  However, I agree with this arrangement
of names for neoceratosaurs, after reviewing the literature.

Holtz, Molnar and Currie
Tetanurae (Passer domesticus <- Ceratosaurus nasicornis)
Spinosauroidea (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Passer domesticus)
Megalosauridae (Megalosaurus bucklandi <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus,
Allosaurus fragilis, Passer domesticus)
Megalosaurinae (Megalosaurus bucklandi <- Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis)
Eustreptospondylinae (Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis <- Megalosaurus
bucklandi)
Spinosauridae (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Megalosaurus bucklandi, Allosaurus
fragilis, Passer domesticus)
Baryonychinae (Baryonyx walkeri <- Spinosaurus aegyptiacus)
Spinosaurinae (Spinosaurus aegyptiacus <- Baryonyx walkeri)
Avetheropoda (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus)
Carnosauria (Allosaurus fragilis <- birds)
Allosauroidea (Allosauruis fragilis + Sinraptor dongi) (Padian et al., 1999)
Allosauridae (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus
saharicus)
Sinraptoridae (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus
saharicus) (Currie and Zhao, 1993)
Carcharodontosauridae (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis,
Sinraptor dongi)
Coelurosauria (Passer domesticus <- Allosaurus fragilis)
Compsognathidae (Compsognathus longipes <- Passer domesticus)
Tyrannoraptora (Tyrannosaurus rex + Passer domesticus) (Sereno, 1999)
- This is the first time Megalosauridae and Megalosaurinae have been validly
defined (Allain, 2002 didn't use Megalosaurus as a specifier).  It's also
the first time Compsognathidae and Eustreptospondylinae have been defined.

Holtz
Tyrannosauroidea (Tyrannosaurus rex <- Allosaurus fragilis, Ornithomimus
velox, Deinonychus antirhoppus)
Tyrannosauridae (Gorgosaurus libratus + Albertosaurus sarcophagus +
Daspletosaurus torosus + Tarbosaurus bataar + Tyrannosaurus rex)
Albertosaurinae (Albertosaurus sarcophagus <- Tyrannosaurus rex)
Tyrannosaurinae (Tyrannosaurus rex <- Albertosaurus sarcophagus)
- The first published good definition of Tyrannosauridae.

Makovicky, Kobayashi and Currie
Ornithomimosauria (Pelecanimimus polyodon + Ornithomimus edmontonicus)
(Padian et al., 1999)
- Irritatingly the authors never define Ornithomimidae, although they use it
often.  Also, velox should be used, as it is the type of Ornithomimus.

Clark, Maryanska and Barsbold
Therizinosauroidea (Therizinosaurus + Beipiaosaurus)
Therizinosauridae (Therizinosaurus + Erlikosaurus)

Osmolska, Currie and Barsbold
Oviraptorosauria (Oviraptor philoceratops <- Passer domesticus) (Maryanska
et al., 2002)
Caenagnathoidea (Caenagnathus collinsi + Oviraptor philoceratops) (Maryanska
et al., 2002)
Caenagnathidae (Caenagnathus collinsi <- Oviraptor philoceratops) (Maryanska
et al., 2002)
Oviraptoridae (Oviraptor philoceratops <- Caenagnathus collinsi) (Maryanska
et al., 2002)
Oviraptorinae (Oviraptor philoceratops + Citipati osmolskae)
Ingeniinae (Ingenia yanshini + Conchoraptor gracilis)
- This is the first time the subfamilies have been named, and I'm not
impressed. If Clark et al. are right about Oviraptor being the most basal
oviraptorid, all oviraptorids will be oviraptorines.  Well, if the
hypothesis Microvenator is closer to Oviraptor than Chirostenotes is
correct, Microvenator would be a non-oviraptorine oviraptorid.

Makovicky and Norell
Troodontidae (Troodon formosus <- Velociraptor mongoliensis) (Sereno, 1998)

Norell and Makovicky
Dromaeosauridae (Microraptor zhaoianus + Sinornithosaurus millenii +
Velociraptor mongoliensis)
- Nice try, but Dromaeosaurus needs to be a specifier.  When will people
learn?!

Padian
Avialae (living birds <- Deinonychus) (Ostrom, 1975, 1976; Gauthier, 1986;
Chiappe, 1997; Padian, 1997)
Ornithurae (Hesperornithiformes + Ichthyornithiformes + Neornithes) (Martin,
1983)
- No one was phylogenetically defining taxa in 1983, let alone Martin.  With
all the defined clades of birds, this could have been done a lot better.

Galton and Upchurch
Sauropodomorpha (Saltasaurus <- Theropoda)
Prosauropoda (Plateosaurus <- Sauropoda)
Anchisauria (Anchisaurus + Melanorosaurus)
Anchisauridae (Anchisaurus <- Melanorosaurus)
Melanorosauridae (Melanorosaurus <- Anchisaurus)
Plateosauria (Jingshanosaurus + Plateosaurus)
Plateosauridae (Plateosaurus <- Yunnanosaurus, Massospondylus)
- Anchisauria is a new taxon, one that will equal a node-based Sauropoda in
Yates' topology.  Melanorosauridae would include all sauropods except
Anchisaurus.  Plateosauridae and Anchisauridae are monogeneric in Yates'
topology, while it's hard to apply this version of Plateosauria to any
topology, since no one else has attempted to place Jingshanosaurus.  These
are the first definitions for Anchisauridae, Melanorosauridae and perhaps
Plateosauridae though.

Upchurch, Barrett and Dodson
Sauropoda (Saltasaurus <- Plateosaurus) (Wilson and Upchurch, 1998)
Eusauropoda (Shunosaurus + Saltasaurus) (Upchurch, 1995)
Cetiosauridae (Cetiosaurus <- Saltasaurus)
Neosauropoda (Diplodocus + Saltasaurus) (Wilson and Sereno, 1998)
Diplodocoidea (Diplodocus <- Saltasaurus) (Wilson and Sereno, 1998)
Nemegtosauridae (Nemegtosaurus <- Diplodocus)
Rebbachisauridae (Rebbachisaurus <- Diplodocus)
Dicraeosauridae (Dicraeosaurus <- Diplodocus)
Diplodocidae (Diplodocus <- Dicraeosaurus)
Macronaria (Saltasaurus <- Diplodocus) (Wilson and Sereno, 1998)
Camarasauromorpha (Camarasaurus + Saltasaurus)
Titanosauriformes (Brachiosaurus + Saltasaurus) (Wilson and Sereno, 1998)
Brachiosauridae (Brachiosaurus <- Saltasaurus) (Wilson and Sereno, 1998)
Titanosauria (Saltasaurus <- Brachiosaurus)
Lithostrotia (Malawisaurus + Saltasaurus)
Saltasauridae (Opisthocoelicaudia + Saltasaurus)
- Cetiosauridae is finally defined, and I think it's the first time for
Nemegtosauridae and Rebbachisauridae too.  This is the fifth definition for
Titanosauria, all of which are invalid since none include Titanosaurus as a
specifier.  If Nemegtosaurus is a titanosaur, Nemegtosauridae becomes a
synonym of Macronaria.

Weishampel
Ornithischia (Triceratops <- Tyrannosaurus)
Genasauria (Ankylosaurus + Triceratops) (Sereno, 1997)
Thyreophora (Ankylosaurus <- Triceratops)
Cerapoda (Triceratops <- Ankylosaurus)
Marginocephalia (Pachycephalosaurus + Triceratops)
- What's with the Tyrannosaurus-Triceratops dichotomy again?

Norman, Witmer and Weishampel
Ornithischia (Iguanodon <- Cetiosaurus)
- Much better definition.

Norman, Witmer and Weishampel
Thyreophora (Ankylosaurus <- Triceratops) (Sereno, 1999)

Galton and Upchurch
Stegosauria (Stegosaurus <- Ankylosauria) (Sereno, 1998, 1999)
Huayangosauridae (Huayangosaurus <- Stegosaurus)
Stegosauridae (Stegosaurus <- Huayangosaurus) (Sereno, 1998, 1999)
Stegosaurinae (Stegosaurus <- Dacentrurus) (Sereno, 1998)

Vickaryous, Maryanska and Weishampel
Ankylosauria (Ankylosaurus <- Stegosaurus) (Sereno, 1998)
Ankylosauridae (Ankylosaurus <- Panoplosaurus) (Sereno, 1998)
Nodosauridae (Panoplosaurus <- Ankylosaurus) (Sereno, 1998)
Ankylosaurinae (Ankylosaurus <- Shamosaurus) (Sereno, 1998)
- When will someone use Nodosaurus as a specifier for Nodosauridae?

Norman, Sues, Witmer and Coria
Ornithopoda (Edmontosaurus <- Triceratops)
- Why Edmontosaurus?  Iguanodon is a more obvious choice.

Norman
Iguanodontia (Edmontosaurus <- Thescelosaurus)
Styracosterna (Lurdusaurus + all more derived Iguanodontia)
- First, why Thescelosaurus?  It's traditionally Hypsilophodon.  Second,
Iguanodon needs to be included.  Third, Norman actually defines a lot of
taxa, but uses the incorrect form "taxon A plus all more derived
iguanodonts", which though obvious in intention, is technically meaningless.
The only new definition is for Styracosterna, which originally had
Probactrosaurs as a specifier.  Recall Sereno thought Probactrosaurus was
basal to the Iguanodon + Ouranosaurus + hadrosaur clade.  Norman (correctly,
in my opinion) places Probactrosaurus closer to hadrosaurs than the former
two taxa.  But Iguanodon and Ouranosaurus have the sternal structure the
clade is named for, so Norman changes the definition to let them be
styracosternans.  Not a valid reason in my view.

Horner, Weishampel and Forster
Hadrosauridae (Telmatosaurus + Parasaurolophus)
- Hadrosaurus *cough* *cough*.

Maryanska, Chapman and Weishampel
Pachycephalosauria (Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis <- Triceratops horridus)
(Sereno, 1997)
Goyocephala (Goyocephale + Pachycephalosaurus)
Homocephaloidea (Homocephale + Pachycephalosaurus)
- Pachycephalosauridae is never defined, though often used, and an 'unnamed
clade' with its place in the cladogram is given a definition.

You and Dodson
Ceratopsia (Triceratops <- Pachycephalosaurus)
Neoceratopsia (Triceratops <- Psittacosaurus)
Coronosauria (Protoceratops + Triceratops) (Sereno, 1998)
- Protoceratopsidae is never defined, though often used.

Dodson, Forster and Sampson
Ceratopsidae (Centrosaurus + Triceratops)
Centrosaurinae (Centrosaurus <- Triceratops)
Chasmosaurinae (Triceratops <- Centrosaurus)
- Chasmosaurus *cough* *cough*.  And Ceratops, for that matter.

Mickey Mortimer
Undergraduate, Earth and Space Sciences
University of Washington
The Theropod Database - http://students.washington.edu/eoraptor/Home.html