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ACTA GEOLOGIA SINICA Vol.78 No.4 2004

pp.883-896
Early Cretaceous Archaefructus eoflora sp. nov. with Bisexual Flowers from 
Beipiao, Western Liaoning, China
JI Qiang, LI Hongqi, L.Michelle BOWE, LIU Yusheng and David Winship TAYLOR
Abstract
Recently, whether Archaefructus has bisexual multi-parted flowers or just 
inflorescences of unisexual flowers, and whether it is ancestral to all 
angiosperms or a derived eudicot have been debated. Here, from the same Yixian 
Formation, NE China, we report a new Archaefructus species, A. eoflora sp. 
nov., with the generic characteristics of dissected leaves and bisexual 
reproductive axes. It is entirely preserved with roots, rhizome, shoots and 
protogynous reproductive organs at different developmental stages. Its lateral 
and main fertile shoots form a pseudo-indeterminate pattern, while the 
reproductive branches on the main shoot form a cymose inflorescence. Subtended 
by 1-2 bract-like leaves, the section of stamen clusters changes into a much 
shorter section of carpels that have one row of orthotropous ovules. 
Significantly, one cluster bearing two carpels and one stamen between the two 
sections demonstrates a true bisexual flower, an important step of the origin 
of floral !
 bisexuality, and the homology between the stamen and carpel. The complex 
reproductive axes represent a mix between flowers and inflorescences, and 
suggest that A. eoflora sp. nov. possesses the potential to evolve into a 
variety of diverse flower types as found in modern basal and early fossil 
angiosperms. A comparison with other two species also leads to a revision of 
the generic diagnosis. 

pp.897-906
Postcranial Anatomy of the Mesozoic Dalinghosaurus (Squamata): Evidence from a 
New Specimen of Western Liaoning
JI Shu’an and JI Qiang
Abstract
The postcranial skeleton of a new specimen of the long-tailed lizard 
Dalinghosaurus longidigitus was excavated from the Yixian Formation in 
Lingyuan, western Liaoning. The new specimen provides more anatomical 
information about this species, especially about the anterior dorsal vertebrae, 
shoulder girdle and forelimbs. This lizard can be included within the clade 
Scleroglossa by its 27 or more presacrals, moderately long pubis, and gently 
notched distal end of tibia. But the detailed systematic position for this 
taxon remains undetermined. The features of the much longer hind limbs and pes 
compared with forelimbs and manus, metatarsal IV longer than III, pedal 
phalanges robust, and penultimate phalanx not longer than other phalanges etc. 
suggest that this lizard was a running and ground swelling animal.

pp.907-911
A Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur with Opisthocoelous Caudal Vertebrae from the 
Early Late Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, China
YOU Hailu, JI Qiang, Matthew C. LAMANNA, LI Jinglu and LI Yinxian
Abstract
We describe a new titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur, Borealosaurus wimani gen. et 
sp. nov., based on a distinctive mid-distal caudal vertebra from the early Late 
Cretaceous Sunjiawan Formation exposed in the Shuangmiao village of Beipiao in 
Liaoning, China. We provisionally refer an isolated tooth crown, a middle 
caudal verebra, and a right humerus from the same locality and horizon to this 
taxon. Borealosaurus is distinguished from other sauropods in its possession of 
opisthocoelous mid-distal caudal vertebrae. The occurrence opisthocoelous 
caudals in Borealosaurus and the Mongolian sauropod Opisthocoelicaudia raises 
the possibility that these taxa pertain to an as-yet unrecognized titanosaurian 
subclade endemic to the Cretaceous Asia.


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TAKAHASHI, Kazuo 高橋 和男
pantheon@dino-pantheon.com
http://www.dino-pantheon.com/
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