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Plesiorycteropus and Apheliscinae part 2



I added the two apheliscines to Asher et al.'s (2003) morphological matrix,
made the few coding changes recommended by Zack et al. (2005) and ordered
several characters that form anatomical series.  This resulted in 4 mpt's
(1116 steps) with the following consensus-
|--Didelphis
|--Macropus
`--+--+--Ukhaatherium
   |  `--Zalambdalestes
   `--+--+--Felis
      |  `--Canis
      `--+--+--Hyopsodus
         |  `--+--Phenacodus
         |     `--+--Meniscotherium
         |        `--+--Procavia
         |           `--+--+--Palaeoparadoxia
         |              |  `--+--+--Moeritherium
         |              |     |  `--Arsinoitherium
         |              |     `--+--Loxodonta
         |              |        `--Trichechus
         |              `--+--Tapirus
         |                 `--+--Ceratotherium
         |                    `--+--Equus
         |                       `--+--Sus
         |                          |--Hippopotamus
         |                          `--+--Tragelaphus
         |                             `--Lama
         `--+--+--+--Manis
            |  |  `--Tamandua
            |  `--+--Megaptera
            |     `--Tursiops
            `--+--+--Chaetophractus
               |  `--+--Orycteropus
               |     `--Plesiorycteropus
               `--+--+--Cynocephalus
                  |  `--+--+--Artibeus
                  |     |  `--Nycterus
                  |     `--+--Pteropus
                  |        `--Rousettus
                  `--+--+--Erinaceus
                     |  `--+--+--Amblysomus
                     |     |  `--+--Echinops
                     |     |     `--Tenrec
                     |     `--+--Sorex
                     |        `--+--Talpa
                     |           `--Condylura
                     `--+--Leptictis
                        `--+--+--Lemur
                           |  `--+--Tarsius
                           |     `--+--Ateles
                           |        |--Callimico
                           |        `--+--Macaca
                           |           `--Homo
                           `--+--+--Anagale
                              |  `--Tupaia
                              `--+--Apheliscus
                                 `--+--Haplomylus
                                    `--+--+--Elephantulus
                                       |  `--Macroscelides
                                       `--+--Ochotona
                                          `--+--Sylvilagus
                                             `--+--+--Rattus
                                                |  `--Mus
                                                `--+--+--Cavia
                                                   |  `--Hydrochaeris
                                                   `--+--Erithizon
                                                      `--Hystrix
Note that even with 196 characters, morphological analyses just group
ecotypes.  Pangolins group with anteaters, flying lemurs with bats,
ungulates, lipotyphlans.  Generalized carnivores are most basal, whales
group with myrmecivorous taxa (slender snouts with reduced dentition?).  But
also note now that apheliscines can go outside Afrotheria, they are sister
to Macroscelidea + Glires, not just Macroscelidea.  Plesiorycteropus groups
with Orycteropus here.

So I constrained the trees to be congruent with molecular data.  My
constraint tree was-
|--Marsupalia
`--+--+--+--Hyracoidea
   |  |  |--Proboscidea
   |  |  `--Sirenia
   |  `--+--Tubulidentata
   |     |--Tenrecidae
   |     |--Chrysochloridae
   |     `--Macroscelidea
   |--+--Cingulata
   |  `--Pilosa
   `--+--+--+--Primates
      |  |  `--Dermoptera
      |  |--Scandentia
      |  `--+--Lagomorpha
      |     `--Rodentia
      `--+--+--Talpidae
         |  `--+--Soricidae
         |     `--Erinaceidae
         `--+--Chiroptera
            |--+--Camelidae
            |  `--+--Suidae
            |     `--+--Ruminantia
            |        `--+--Hippopotamidae
            |           `--Cetacea
            |--Perrisodactyla
            `--+--Pholidota
               `--Carnivora

This resulted in 18 mpt's (1210 steps), of which the consensus was-
|--Didelphis
|--Macropus
`--+--+--Ukhaatherium
   |  `--Zalambdalestes
   `--+--+--+--Chaetophractus
      |  |  `--Tamandua
      |  `--+--+--Orycteropus
      |     |  `--+--Leptictis
      |     |     `--+--+--Amblysomus
      |     |        |  `--+--Echinops
      |     |        |     `--Tenrec
      |     |        `--+?-Apheliscus
      |     |           `--+--Haplomylus
      |     |              `--+--Elephantulus
      |     |                 `--Macroscelides
      |     `--+--Hyopsodus
      |        `--+--Meniscotherium
      |           `--+--Phenacodus
      |              `--+--Procavia
      |                 `--+--Moeritherium
      |                    `--+--Arsinoitherium
      |                       `--+--Loxodonta
      |                          `--Trichechus
      `--+--+--+--Cynocephalus
         |  |  |--+--Tupaia
         |  |  |  `--Anagale
         |  |  `--+--Lemur
         |  |     `--+--Tarsius
         |  |        `--+--Ateles
         |  |           |--Callimico
         |  |           `--+--Macaca
         |  |              `--Homo
         |  `--+--+--Ochotona
         |     |  `--Sylvilagus
         |     `--+--+--Rattus
         |        |  `--Mus
         |        `--+--+--Cavia
         |           |  `--Hydrochaeris
         |           `--+--Erethizon
         |              `--Hystrix
         `--+--+--+--Condylura
            |  |  `--Talpa
            |  |?-Plesiorycteropus
            |  `--+--Erinaceus
            |     `--Sorex
            `--+--+--Manis
               |  `--+--Felis
               |     `--Canis
               `--+--+--Ceratotherium
                  |  `--+--Equus
                  |     `--Tapirus
                  `--+--+--+--Artibeus
                     |  |  `--Nycteris
                     |  `--+--Pteropus
                     |     `--Rousettus
                     `--+--Palaeoparadoxia
                        `--+--Lama
                           `--+--Sus
                              `--+--Tragelaphus
                                 `--+--Hippopotamus
                                    `--+--Megaptera
                                       `--Tursiops
Plesiorcteropus (clades with eulipotyhphlans 56%) can go anywhere in
Placentalia outside of Euarchontoglires, Talpidae, Carnivora,
Perissodactyla+Artiodactyla+Chiroptera, Xenarthra, the
paenungulate+condylarth clade and the Leptictis+Macroscelidea+Tenrecoidea
clade.  So it could be a tubulidentate or a lot of other things.
Apheliscus (clades with Haplomylus and macroscelideans 67%) can go anywhere
in Placentalia outside Haplomylus+Macroscelidea, Tenrecoidea, the
paenungulate+condylarth clade, Xenarthra, Scrotifera and Talpidae.
Interesting that Perissodactyla and Lagomorpha become monophyletic, even
though I didn't constrain them that way.

Mickey Mortimer
Undergraduate, Earth and Space Sciences
University of Washington
The Theropod Database - http://students.washington.edu/eoraptor/Home.html