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RE: the extracolumella

David Peters (DPeters@kupperparker.com) wrote:

<Is it the homolog of the quadratojugal?>

  Most certainly not. It's present in cranes at least, other birds as Hope
suggests, snakes like *Dinilysia,* lizards like chameleons and geckoes,
among others. Apparently it's present in frogs (called the extrastapes),
and always as a form of hardened or semi-ossified cartilage. There is no
homology with animals having a quadratojugal but no extracolumella, or
vice versa.


Jaime A. Headden

  Little steps are often the hardest to take.  We are too used to making leaps 
in the face of adversity, that a simple skip is so hard to do.  We should all 
learn to walk soft, walk small, see the world around us rather than zoom by it.

"Innocent, unbiased observation is a myth." --- P.B. Medawar (1969)

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