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Barrett, P. M. 2004. Sauropodomorph dinosaur diversity in the upper Elliot Formation (_Massospondylus_ range zone: Lower Jurassic) of South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100:501-503.

ABSTRACT: A previously undescribed sauropodomorph dinosaur skull collected from the upper Elliot Formation (_Massospondylus_ range zone) of South Africa is shown to be morphologically distinct from the widespread sympatric genus _Massospondylus_. Consequently, the generic-level diversity of basal sauropodomorphs in the Lower
Jurassic dinosaur fauna of this region was higher than supposed previously. This unnamed taxon may represent either a new genus, new material of an established lower Elliot Formation (_Euskelosaurus_ range zone) sauropodomorph or cranial elements of a genus currently regarded as synonymous with _Massospondylus_. As a result, this specimen has important implications for upper Elliot Formation palaeoecology and for the use of sauropodomorph dinosaurs in biostratigraphical correlations.

Yates, A.M., Hancox, P.J., and Rubidge, B.S. 2004. First record of a sauropod dinosaur from the upper Elliot Formation (Early Jurassic) of South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100: 504-506.

Clarke, A. H. 2005. On the vestibular labyrinth of _Brachiosaurus brancai_. Journal of Vestibular Research 15:65-71.

ABSTRACT: The extensive remains of large sauropods, excavated in the Upper Jurassic layers of the Tendaguru region of Tanzania, East Africa by Janensch [15], include an intact fossil cast of a vestibular labyrinth and an endocast of the large _Brachiosaurus brancai_. The approximately 150 million year old labyrinth cast demonstrates clearly a form and organisation congruent in detail to those of extant vertebrate species. Besides the near-orthogonal arrangement of semicircular canals (SCCs), the superior and inferior branches of the vestibulo-acoustic nerve, the endolymphatic duct, the oval and round windows, and the cochlea can be identified. The orientation of the labyrinth in the temporal bone is also equivalent to that of many extant vertebrates. Furthermore, the existence of the twelve cranial nerves can be identified from the endocast.
The present study was initiated after the photogrammetric measurement of the skeleton volume of _B. brancai_ [13] yielded a realistic estimate of body mass (74.42 metric tons). Dimensional analysis shows that body mass and average SCC dimensions of _B. brancai_ generally fit with the allometric relationship found in previous studies of extant species. However, the anterior SCC is significantly larger than the allometric relationship would predict. This would indicate greater sensitivity, supporting the idea that the behavioural repertoire must have included much slower pitch movements of the head. These slower movements would most likely have involved flexion of the neck, rather than head pitching about the atlas joint. Pursuing the relationship between body mass and SCC dimensions further, the SCC frequency response is estimated by scaling up from the SCC dimensions of the rhesus monkey; this yields a range between 0.008-26 Hz, approximately one octave lower than for humans.

Pereda Suberbiola, X., P. Dantas, P. M. Galton, and J. L. Sanz. 2005. Autopodium of the holotype of _Dracopelta zbyszewskii_ (Dinosauria, Ankylosauria) and its type horizon and locality (Upper Jurassic: Tithonian, western Portugal). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 235:175-196.

Sharma, N., R. K. Kar, A. Agarwal, and R. Kar. 2005. Fungi in dinosaurian (_Isisaurus_) coprolites from the Lameta Formation (Maastrichtian) and its reflection on food habit and environment. Micropaleontology 51:73-82.

ABSTRACT: Plant pathogens _Colletotrichum_ causing leaf spot and red rot disease, _Erysiphe_ and _Uncinula_ responsible for producing powdery mildews and microthyriaceous ascostromata making black spot on leaves were recovered from the Group A type of coprolite of Matley from the Lameta Formation. This was supposed to be voided by _Isisaurus_ (_Titanosaurus_) belonging to sauropods. The presence of these fungi in the coprolites indicates that the said dinosaur ate the leaves. As these pathogens occur in all types of plants it is postulated that the Isisaurus used its long, slender neck to browse the trees like modern camels and giraffes. The coprolites also yielded _Glomus_ - a mycorrhizal fungus which probably penetrated into it after it was voided on the surface. On the basis of epiphyllous fungi it is postulated that the dinosaurs lived in a tropical-subtropical climate.

Jerry D. Harris
Director of Paleontology
Dixie State College
Science Building
225 South 700 East
St. George, UT  84770
Phone: (435) 652-7758
Fax: (435) 656-4022
E-mail: jharris@dixie.edu
and     dinogami@hotmail.com

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