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Re: Sneak Peak at Yale Torosaurus Sculpture

Well. . .maybe ceratopsids didn't have cheeks? I was initially resistant to
this when Witmer first presented the idea, but then I started looking a
little more closely on some real specimens. In most ceratopsid skulls, the
anastomosing neurovascular impressions lead right up to the tooth row.

Those could indicate a beak, lips or cheeks, couldn't they? What about gums that were thick enough to protect the sides of the tooth batteries?

Of course, I totally think Toro (and most other ceratopsids) would look
better with some nice cheeks, but the evidence just doesn't support it in
this group. Maybe a flap of skin at best? Who knows. . .

Of course I have no idea whether a mammal-style muscular cheek was present. But nothing at all, as in the sculpture, would mean that a lot of food routinely fell out of the mouth.