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sounds



 There is no strong consensus on the vocal repertoire of
the African elephant in general, and no consensus on the
number of rumble subtypes in particular. Rumbles are
frequency-modulated, harmonically rich vocalizations
with frequency components near or within the infrasonic
range. In an early study, Berg (1983) classified 209 vocalizations
from nine captive elephants into 10 acoustic types,
including two separate types of rumble (the 'growl' and
'rolling growl' in Berg's terminology). In the parameters
described, however, the two rumbles differ very little, or
not at all. Mean durations do differ but they overlap
extensively, and the range of fundamental frequencies are
the same for the two calls. Among wild elephants, Poole
et al. (1988) categorized seven rumble types according to
their social function, and provided various acoustic characteristics
(e.g. frequency contour characteristics) for exemplars
corresponding to each type. Poole (1999) also
characterized oestrous rumbles according to measures of
the fundamental contour. From these descriptions, however,
it is not possible to determine whether these rumble
types differ acoustically as discrete subtypes or in a graded
manner.

JOSEPH SOLTIS, KIRSTEN LEONG & ANNE SAVAGE
African elephant vocal communication II: rumble
variation reflects the individual identity
and emotional state of callers. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2005, 70, 589-599



Kenneth Carpenter, Ph.D.
Curator of Lower Vertebrate Paleontology/
Chief Preparator
Department of Earth Sciences
Denver Museum of Nature & Science
2001 Colorado Blvd.
Denver, CO 80205
 
Phone: 303-370-6392
Fax: 303-331-6492
************************************************************
for PDFs of some of my publications, as well as information of the Cedar
Mountain Project: 
https://scientists.dmns.org/sites/kencarpenter/default.aspx

-----Original Message-----
From: owner-dinosaur@usc.edu [mailto:owner-dinosaur@usc.edu] On Behalf
Of Sim Koning
Sent: Monday, February 20, 2006 12:49 PM
To: dinosaur@usc.edu
Subject: RE: Guanlong wucaii (was RE: Early Version of T. Rex Is
Discovered)

I always thought it was same with Parasauroplophus. I thought the idea
was that sound was generated by the vocal cords and then resonated
through the crest like a brass instrument. I'm pretty sure elephants do
the same with their trunks to create very low frequency sounds. Elephant
seals don't raise their proboscis, its inflated and drops down in front
of the mouth. The nose acts as a resonating chamber that cane generate
very load roars that can heard for miles.


>From: Ken.Carpenter@dmns.org
>Reply-To: Ken.Carpenter@dmns.org
>To: simkoning@msn.com, dinosaur@usc.edu
>Subject: RE: Guanlong wucaii (was RE: Early Version of T. Rex Is
>Discovered)
>Date: Mon, 20 Feb 2006 11:30:00 -0700
>
>It is through their vocal chords. They lift their proboscis, which 
>makes you think it is through the nose.
>
>
>Kenneth Carpenter, Ph.D.
>Curator of Lower Vertebrate Paleontology/ Chief Preparator Department 
>of Earth Sciences Denver Museum of Nature & Science
>2001 Colorado Blvd.
>Denver, CO 80205
>
>Phone: 303-370-6392
>Fax: 303-331-6492
>************************************************************
>for PDFs of some of my publications, as well as information of the 
>Cedar Mountain Project:
>https://scientists.dmns.org/sites/kencarpenter/default.aspx
>
>-----Original Message-----
>From: owner-dinosaur@usc.edu [mailto:owner-dinosaur@usc.edu] On Behalf 
>Of Sim Koning
>Sent: Monday, February 20, 2006 11:25 AM
>To: dinosaur@usc.edu
>Subject: RE: Guanlong wucaii (was RE: Early Version of T. Rex Is
>Discovered)
>
>"since when do animals make bellowing noises through their nose"
>
>Elephant seals and elephants do.
>
>
> >From: Ken.Carpenter@dmns.org
> >Reply-To: Ken.Carpenter@dmns.org
> >To: blackphoenix@eastlink.ca, dinosaur@usc.edu
> >Subject: RE: Guanlong wucaii (was RE: Early Version of T. Rex Is
> >Discovered)
> >Date: Thu, 09 Feb 2006 13:28:38 -0700
> >
> >You took my comment waaaaaaaay to serious. I was making fun of the 
> >resonanting chamber hypothesis of lamberosaurs (since when do animals

> >make bellowing noises through their nose????) AND Jack Horner's 
> >scavenging hypothesis.
> >
> >
> >Kenneth Carpenter, Ph.D.
> >Curator of Lower Vertebrate Paleontology/ Chief Preparator Department

> >of Earth Sciences Denver Museum of Nature & Science
> >2001 Colorado Blvd.
> >Denver, CO 80205
> >
> >Phone: 303-370-6392
> >Fax: 303-331-6492
> >************************************************************
> >for PDFs of some of my publications, as well as information of the 
> >Cedar Mountain Project:
> >https://scientists.dmns.org/sites/kencarpenter/default.aspx
> >
> >-----Original Message-----
> >From: owner-dinosaur@usc.edu [mailto:owner-dinosaur@usc.edu] On 
> >Behalf Of Amtoine Grant
> >Sent: Thursday, February 09, 2006 12:50 PM
> >To: dinosaur@usc.edu
> >Subject: Re: Guanlong wucaii (was RE: Early Version of T. Rex Is
> >Discovered)
> >
> >On Thursday, February 9, 2006, at 01:05  PM, Ken.Carpenter@dmns.org
> >wrote:
> >
> > > The crest obviously is a resonating chamber like lambeosaurs to 
> > > call
>
> > > other scavengers to dinner - ;-)
> >
> >
> >Seemingly illogical given that that would only mean less food for the

> >'calling' individual. Vultures & bald eagles, for example, don't 
> >summon
>
> >each other AND they often squabble and/or fight . HOWEVER, it would 
> >make sense if that when groups were assembled they would cooperate in

> >defense of themselves & the carcass from the [at that time larger 
> >representatives of] other predaceous theropods of the time. This 
> >would also be a good starting point for the socialization that 
> >certain assemblages of tyrannosaurid fossils represent. Besides the 
> >obvious social implications of a head-borne crest that works directly

> >against predation. . .
>
>